CHAPTER ONE.

 

Which touches on the Modes of Cryptology properly called.

 

IT HAS ALREADY BEEN STATED AT SUFFICIENT LENGTH IN THE PRECEDING BOOK

that both in speech and in writing, as well as in signs, the secret can and should be so hidden that it is possible for no one, unless he be one who has understanding of this art, easily to scent the same, to run it down, and to get it in his possession. Let us now, as the scheme of our undertaking demands, consider the various Modes of secret-making, one by one. And that our investigation may proceed systematically, and the parts be taken up in the order just named, I will begin in this chapter with those methods of concealment that apply to speech.  This sort of concealment, then, takes place either by the mediation of Speech, or by the mediation of Signs. I say signs, for, although I have postponed the treatment of this subject to the last, there is no reason why that part of it which has to do with speech should not, as being the briefer, part, be here treated by anticipation.

 

This concealment which takes place by the mediation of the voice is accomplished by Secret Suggestion of Speech, by Transference, or, by Alteration.

 

Secret Suggestion, again, is accomplished through the secret lowering of the voice, through the subdued utterance of words into a tube, or through the confinement of the voice in a pipe, or greater conduit. Secret lowering of the voice is the act of speaking under the breath to one in our presence. But this practice, as being undignified and liable to suspicion, shall form no part of our art (see Cardano, De Subtilitate, Bk. 12.); turn we, rather, to the other methods of Secret Suggestion. The subdued utterance of words through a tube or greater conduit, takes place between those separated in space.  The confinement of a voice, as articulate speech, in a pipe, takes place between those separated in space and at great distance from each other. On these two Modes, it is worth while hearing Walch, Decad. Fab., 9, p. 223, who discourses to the following effect: “Our subject of discourse and inquiry at the present time is not that Mode of secret speech, whereby two friends, stationed at positions very far apart,–say, a distance you would hardly believe possible, two or three hundred paces or even more,–are able, by talking through a leaden or copper tube, to converse safely with each other, with no sound of what is passing reaching the ears of those standing between the two points. As respects this Mode, it may be said that, if the words are assisted by being enclosed in regular conduits and by being kept uninjured and safe from the danger of contact with rocks, they may be transmitted through passages of very great length, and issue from the other end of the pipe still unimpaired and distinct, very little, if any, later than the moment of their utterance,—and this while those standing between the two points are, to a man, unaware of what is said and as if deaf.

 

 

 

 

The object of our toil and ingenuity is at present rather to determine the method by which, when our friends are at a distance even of several miles, we may talk to them through a pipe, by speaking into, and consigning to the care of said pipe, certain definite and distinctly uttered words, which are to be transferred, by courier and carefully guarded, to another spot; the words then once more jump forth from the tube and strike our friend’s ear, faithfully repeated, and in exactly the same order in which the consignment was made.

 

 

Not every one, however will easily credit this story. And so the following trick will perhaps be so ingenious as quite to surpass your belief: that you should enclose in a tube certain definite and distinctly uttered words, and that, after the lapse of a considerable time, to be measured by days, in a spot well removed from your original position, these words should be returned to you and be heard by you in the same order and with the same intervals as when spoken. On this principle you may even make a statue or a wooden representation of a mouth talk and return answers to your questions; and thus what would be a plaything for you, would be a source of wonder for men in general. So it is recorded in the books that Albertus Magnus constructed a talking head. There is no doubt that he produced this rare and wonderful thing through some one of the above-mentioned devices.” thus, Walch. Of the truth of Walch’s word, so far as they relate to the tube, I myself certainly had experience in the so-called Giants’ Hall of the Ducal Palace at Mantua, before the San Sebastian gate. I there saw two men standing in remote parts or corners of the hall and talking to each other by means of a tube of this sort, and with one of the two men I myself conversed in the same way, when I distinctly heard his voice. All this time not a sound of what was passing was heard by any one of those who stood in the space between. On a similar tube or small copper pipe,(1) hear Phillippus Camerarius, Hor. Subc. Cent., I.c.28, pp. 142, 143, who discourses thus, drawing his account from other authors (for this invention is not of so very recent date): “Also the wall, or rampart, of the Picts,–a wonderful piece of work

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(3) . . . cui certa quaedam articulata verba committamus, atque insusurremeus, probeque munita, tabellario, alio transponenda curemus

 

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built in former times by the Romans with marvelous skill, as a defence against the inroads of the barbarians after England had been reduced to a province,—is described by the same Camden(2) not less learnedly than elegantly and minutely. The Anglo-Saxon Bede (3) also makes mention of the wall and describes the place where its ruins are still to be seen. He(4) furthermore informs us of the time and manner of its destruction by the Picts and Scots. In the course of his account, he passes in review the traces and ruins of the wall, as they exist in many places, and says that at intervals of a mile there were forts–in all, a large number–let into the wall, the foundations of which are to be seen in places in the form of hewn blocks of stone, and that between these forts there were built towers, where were stationed soldiers to overawe the barbarians, and which served as posts for the Areani. These Areani, continues Camden, were a class of men employed by the ancients, whose duty it was, as Marcellinus says,(1) to run to and fro over vast stretches of country and give the alarm to our generals when the neighboring tribes threatened sudden attack. The natives also tell of a small copper pipe that was ingeniously fitted in to this wall and ran from tower to tower and from fort to fort; when at any one of the towers the voice was delivered into this pipe, the second was straightway carried without break to the next tower, and then to the next, and so on to the end of the line; the purpose of the device

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(1) . . . . fistula sive tubulo aereo. . . (see previous page).

(2) In the Britannia, in the section headed Murus Picticus. The words in this passage are in many parts those of Camden.

(3) Historia Ecclesiastica, I.5,12.

(4) I.e. Camden.

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(1) XXVIII. 3.8; the words are, with two slight variations, those of Marcellinus.

 

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being to give information of the place where the attack of the enemy was apprehended. A similar wonderful invention is recorded in connection with the tower of Byzantium, by Xiphilinus in his epitome of Dio’s account of Severus.”(2) To this effect, Camerarius, drawing from Camden. Of what is said by Walch in regard to the confinement and transference of the voice, I have never yet seen a practical illustration. Porta, also, Mag. Nat., Bk.XVI.c.12, ad fin., writes doubtingly thereof although he records that he has heard it said of some lovers whose houses were far apart, that they thus conversed with each other through a leaden pipe, for a long time, in secrecy.(3) As Porta’s book is not accessible to all, I will transcribe his words here. “Take a clay pipe,” he says, “or, better, one made of lead, or of some material such that the pipe shall be perfectly tight, so that the voice may not leak out in the course of its long passage. For, whatever words you speak at one end, are carried whole and unimpaired, and strike the ears of the person standing at the other end just as they issued from the mouth of the speaker. I have not the least doubt that this experiment may be made to succeed over a space of several miles. Without

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(2) Epit., LXXIV. 14. Xiphilinus says that from the Thracian gates there were seven towers running down to the sea; that if one shouted or threw a stone in the first of these, the second took up the sound and sent it on to the next, and this to the third, and so on to the end of the line; that the effect of the several towers was not to confuse the sound, and that this result was not produced if one made the original sound in any other than the first tower.

(3) Quamvis audivisse se, referat, Amantes diu clam simul ita collocutos per plumbeum tubum, aedibus ipsorum longe inter se distantibus. Porta’s words are audivimus autem ab amicis amantes diu clam simul allocutos per plumbeum tubum, ex eorum aedibus longe distantibus.

 

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being torn asunder, without dissipating into the air, the voice is carried along unimpaired over the greatest distance. I on one occasion, when it was inconvenient to communicate in any other way, made the experiment over a space of two hundred paces, and the words were heard as clearly and distinctly as when they issued from the mouth of the speaker. Reasoning from this success, I conceived the idea of detaining by means of leaden pipes spoken words, while in course of passage, and so holding them confined as long as should be desired; with the object that, when the hole should be opened, they might leap forth; for we see that sounds require time to travel, and that, by being carried through a pipe they may be confined within a space. I further conceived that it might be possible, if a very long pipe should prove inconvenient, to include in small space a number of conduits by bending them back on one another. We read that Albertus made a clay head that talked whenever he gave command. Now I should hope to accomplish the same result by the device here described, but I have made no experiment in this line other than the one I have mentioned.” So much for the first more general Mode; we come now to the second.

            Transference is accomplished by schematismatic,(1) or figurative, discourse, and is adapted to the educated only. Figurative discourse is accomplished through rhetorical figures, which are metaphor, metonymy, antonomasia, allegory, enigma, amphiboly. These figures are employed by speakers for the purposes of embellishment, but cryptologists, having different object in view, seek to obtain therewith a certain obscurity. See Porta, Bk.I.c.5; also Schwenter, Steganol. et Steganog., Bk I.mod.8, where examples are given.

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(1) Schemate seu figurata Oratione. Schema, or figura, is a figure of speech.

 

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            Alteration is accomplished in three ways; by Transposition, by Interpolation, or by Innovation.

            Alteration by Transposition is accomplished by Simple Transposition of certain letters, or by Transposition properly called, or, finally, by Mixed Mode. Alteration by Simple Transposition is when two words are taken together and the first letters of each word are interchanged; e.g. Morgen kom zu mir f?r: Korgen mom mu zir t?or. See Schwenter, Aucta Stegen., pp. 221, 222. Alteration by Transposition properly called (see, below, Bk.V.c.2) is when the first and last letters of a word are transposed into the letters which respectively follow them in the alphabet. Schwenter, Ren. Steg., pp. 60, 61, 220, lays down certain rules in this connection, since in monosyllables and in cases where two consonants come in sequence the matter is not so simple. Let the following serve as an example: Morgen kan ich kommen, for which we say Norgeo lao koi lommeo. Transposition by process of combination, or Mixed Mode, takes place when the two above-mentioned Special Modes are used in part conjointly, as is the case in that Transposition of Letters which Schwenter sets forth in his several rules, mod. 9; here the letters are not only changed but they are interchanged as well. This device is said to be in favor among the Jews. Advancing from the Transposition of Letters, it appears under the form of the Transposition of Syllables, and is so used by the students at the universities. This method also is set forth in a number of rules by Schwenter, Bk.I.mod.11. To have called attention to it here is, I think, enough for our purpose.

            Alteration of Speech through Interpolation is accomplished by the Substitution of certain words, by the Interjection of certain letters, or by the Apposition of several Non-significant words. By Substitution Interpolation takes place when, the vernacular being used, the speech is interlarded with low and vulgar words.

 

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This jargon is called by the Italians, according to Cardano, De Rer. Variet., Bk. XII(1) Calman; we Germans call it Rothwelsch, or Betler-Latein.(2) See, on this subject, Munster, Brant, Gesner, Megiserus, and, latest of all, Schwenter, Bk.I.c.7. By Interjection, Interpolation takes place in three ways: (1) By simple method, when after each vowel a consonant is inserted, followed by the vowel itself repeated, as Pabateder, for Pater. This device is ascribed to Thurneisser. (2) When the word is cut and divided into its several syllables, and to each syllable is prefixed the spirant H, and suffixed the syllable ES. As regards what is here said of the letter H, if the syllable of the word thus divided begins with a vowel, the letter is in that case simply prefixed to the syllable without further change. If, however, the syllable begins with a consonant or two or more consonants, the consonant or consonants must in order to allow of the more easy addition of the letter H, be thrown to the end of the syllable. For example, take the word Invocabimus; thus we will divide into five syllables, and it will be transformed into the following: Hines, hoves, haces, hibes, husmes. In this example, the second syllable and the three following syllables, beginning each with a consonant, are changed by having the consonant in each case thrown to the end of the syllable. Thus Glauben is changed to Haugles henbes; Schatz to Hatzsches; Schreiben to Heischres henbes; Schlafen to Haschles henfes. (3) Lastly, when the first letter of the word is thrown to the end of the word, and the letter E or the syllable EN

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(1) C. 61.

(2) Engl. Thieves’ Latin.

(1) Heidel, in his edition of Trithemius’s Steganographia (see note, p. 00.) gives as an example of this method the following, where the last word of each sentence is Significant: Der N. ist ein guter Man. Sein will ist wie mein Wil. Nichts ist mir so lieb als Dieses. Zu ihm will ich setzen in gl?d Ungl?>. Er ist gewunscht f?>Uns. Es trage sich b? oder gutes Z? Ein solcher Freund is hoch zu Schatzen.

 

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is suffixed; e.g. Kom hero, yielding Omke erohe; or Wiltu mit mir gehn, yielding Iltuwen itmen irmen ehngen; see Schwenter, Bk.I. mod. 12, 13. Finally, Interpolation of Speech by Apposition takes place when among the Significant words there are intermingled a number of others, the Significant words being marked by some distinguishing note, so that these may be recognized and alone taken notice of. For example, that word alone is Significant which follows the mention of some animal, or which is the first or the last word of each of a series of brief sentences.(1) Examples are given by Schwenter Bk. I. c.6. If, however, the person who is to be made the recipient of the secret is withdrawn from our sight, we may then reveal the secret, without suspicion, by means of a song, the words being arranged in accordance with the plan indicated above. See Schwenter, Bk. XVII.c.17, and, below, Bk.V@ii. c.2. (Bk.7.ch.2 has writing about a song).

            It remains that I should touch upon Alteration through Innovation. Such Alteration takes place when, instead of the language to which we are accustomed, we make use of a foreign tongue. This Mode is not over-safe, and there can, therefore, be no profit to us in lingering over it. See Bk. VII.c.16.

            So much for secret-making in speech. We come now to secret-making through signs, and these are signs Customary, signs Conventional, and signs Artificial.

            By Customary signs I mean those signs which in and through themselves, by a kind of custom, without any private agreement, and without any form of symbolization of letters, hiddenly tell some fact; and these signs come up for consideration here. By means of them we reveal secrets in two ways: by gestures and by act; and the act may be either an act which is random or an act which is fixed. We betoken facts by gesture when we make use of signs of the body, such

 

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as the manner of holding and nodding the head; the expression of the face and the carriage and movement of the eyes, eyebrows, forehead, cheeks, front of the face, nose, and lips; the shrugging and stretching of the shoulders and neck; the movements of the hands; the hitting of the feet. On all these different methods of conveying information, see Porta, Bk.I.c.7. Winking and nodding and hitting the feet, in particular, are touched on by Schwenter, Bk.I.cc.2,3. We betoken facts by random or unfixed act when we disclose our hidden thought to another by silent roundabout actions of one sort or another. Examples of this class are given by Porta, Bk.I.c.8. Finally, we betoken facts by fixed act when the act in question has regularly, or by general understanding, a certain force to signify this or that thing. Thus, the ringing of bells and the firing of cannon, and other actions of this sort, are employed to signify certain clearly defined things; see Porta, Bk. I.c.6.

            Conventional signs are such as are invested with the validity of tokens by convention and private understanding of the parties between whom the action takes place. It was thus by private understanding that Jonathan, without the knowledge of his servant, by shooting his arrows into the air revealed to David, by means of the arrow, the secret meaning of his mind, as we read in I.Sam.XX. 20, 21, 22, 35-40. It was thus that Winomadus by sending to Childericus, the banished king of the Franks, the half of a gold piece, the other half of which he had given to the king as a token at the time of the latter’s departure, announced that he could safely return to his kingdom; see Aimoinus, the Monk, De Gestis Fracor., Bk.I.c7. So, they say, the Emperors of the Turks, or, if you will, the Ottoman Sultans, through private understanding converse by means of signs with the eight Mutes, and these not only understand what is thus said to them, but are clever at expressing their own thoughts in the

 

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same way. And so, as soon as the concerted sign is given, the Mutes execute the command signified to them but unintelligible to all others present. This institution is looked upon by the Turks as a distinctive mark of sovereign dignity belonging to their Emperors, and this method of talking they call Ixarette; see Phil. Camerarius, Hor. Subc. Cent., I.c.86, p. 399.

            We reveal a fact Artificially by signs when we can make such a system of signs that to one who is privy to the arrangement they take the place of letters, enabling him to understand the sense of the symbolic writing so set down. Inasmuch as this method of secret-making by signs belongs to Cryptography, here is not the place to speak of it further. See Bk. VIII. c. 11.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CHAPTER THE SECOND.

 

Which touches on Cryptography proper and treats of its

Fundamental Principles.

 

            That sort of concealment that has to do with speech has been treated in the preceding chapter, and it received there our principal attention. We now come to that sort of concealment that has to do with writing. In.@ Bk.I.c.2, above I spoke of the Internal End, describing it as the concealment of the secret,—concealment made especially through the instrumentality of hidden writing, or, in other words, of the written letter. Let us, then, see what hidden writing is, and what its field. For so shall we gradually come to an understanding of the Mediums, or various Modes, of writing.

            Hidden writing, then, is that process by which, by means of letters, we hiddenly, or without the knowledge of any third person, put before the eyes of a friend, who has understanding of this institution, vocables, words, and, in fine, an epistle. This definition which I have borrowed for use here from Johannes Goropius Becanus, Hierogl., Bk.III., requires a brief explanation. The Object is the vocables, words and epistle, the Formal Object. The Instrumental Cause is the letters, or scriptural elements.(1) The Proximate Cause is Position. All things else signify the End of writing; see above, Bk.i.c.2, ad fin. And from these fountain-heads all the Mediums of secret-making are deduced, and there can be found nothing appertaining to this art and to this part of the art that can not and should not be referred to these, as will appear from what follows.

            Having disposed of the definition, we come now to the Division, or, rather, Distinction, which I give on a triple basis. First, hidden writing is divided into hidden writing properly called and

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(1) Scriptilia Elementa.

 

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hidden writing improperly called, or Significative. The ground of this division lies in the Proximate Cause. For the statement made in the definition to the effect that writing ‘is the act of putting before the eyes by means of letters’, may be understood in two ways: it may be understood literally, as when, either ourselves or through others acting for us, we form and write letters, or it may be understood of that which is improperly called, or call significatively, as when we put before the eyes not the scriptural elements, or letters, but another thing, which is neither written nor painted, but which in its own way may symbolize letters; as is the case with Real signs. The threefold division of our whole subject is this:(1) concealment takes place by the voice of by writing or by signs, and the signs may be either symbolizing the voice or signs symbolizing writing. Of signs representing the voice, I have already spoken above. Of signs representing writing I will speak later on. Secondly, hidden writing is either itself secret, or is held to be such either by reason of the envelope in which it is enclosed or by reason of the secrecy of its Despatch. The ground of this division lies in the End proper or in the substitute for the End. The End proper is that the writing itself be hidden. If the writing itself be not hidden, the substitute for the End is that at least the Transmission of the writing be hidden. Thirdly, writing which is in itself hidden is such by reason of the letters, or by reason of the sense, or by reason of the language. The ground of this division cannot but be clear, for since writing takes place through letters, concealment may, first, lie in these; or if it lie not in these, then in the sense; or, if it lie neither in the letters nor in the sense, such concealment may come about from the adoption and use of a foreign language. From these divisions we may now easily derive and deduce the Modes of secret-making, with the result that we have Modes Universal, Modes General, and Modes Special.

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(1) Trichotomia sic constat. This explanation recurs to the division already made in Bk. I. c. 2 (p. 00) and Bk. I. c. 4. (p. 00).

 

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Universal Modes are, besides speech, hidden writing through letters, and quasi-writing, or the symbolization of letters by signs. I call these Modes Universal because they embrace the art in all its branches. General Modes are secret writing, the envelopment of the epistle, and secret Despatch. I call these Modes General because, while they do not deal with the whole art, they yet have to do with the largest part of it. Finally Special Modes are: (1) writing by hidden position of letters; (2) writing by hidden sense; (3) writing by foreign language.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CHAPTER THE THIRD.

 

On Hidden Writing by Position of Letters.

 

            To this point we have descended from the most general considerations. We must now advance to the last step, which is writing. Now by hidden writing by letters takes place the Position of Letters, thus: as the letters exist by themselves, as they form syllables, or as they form words. The ground of this division cannot but clear, since letters as they exist by themselves are, as it were, the foundation, syllables are the partition, and words are the roof. Writing by Position of Letters as they exist by themselves may be hidden by reason of the Order of the letters, or by reason of their Power, or by reason of the Form. The ground of this distinction is that letters have these three accidents: Form, Order and Power. Some authors, to be sure, hold that Power is a specific variation of the letter and not an affection. I beg, however, to be allowed to use the word here, at least popularly with reference to an affection; although, in the sense in which I take it, it can refer to nothing else than an affection, or property.

            Up to the present, we have descended by fairly direct process of subdivision to the last affection of the letter, which is Form. We must now turn about and carry our investigation upward. The foundation of the investigation lies in the letter itself, as being the thing smaller than all other things connected with the word. I shall begin, following a plan of my own, with the Order of Letters, from which I shall go to Power and Form. Advancing thence to syllables, words, sense, language, the material of writing, and the Despatch of the missive, and gradually furling my sails when I come to the mysteries of signs, I shall thus be brought to port,—the port which was the starting-point of this long voyage; see, below, Bk. VIII. c. 11.

 

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CHAPTER THE FOURTH.

 

Treating of the Disarrangement of Order,

and the Modes depending thereon.

 

            We must begin with the first Mode of hidden writing, which arises from the principle of Order. For we very properly, keeping the letter still intact as respects both its identity(1) and its Power, make concealment as dependent upon Order the subject of our first inquiry and discussion. When I say Order, I understand thereby the Order of Collocation, in accordance with which letters are written for the purpose of forming words and sentences; in the matter of which Order the common practice is well known to all. That our inquiry, however, may in the case of these and the following Cardinal Modes be carried on in the right way, we must observe three principles, which are found present together in each and every one of these Modes. The first of these principles I shall call the directive principle; the second, the executive principle; the third, the completive principle; see Piccolomini, De Motu Animal., c.2. The first shapes our material remotely; the second, approximately; the third, proximately. The first issues orders, the second executes, the third renders assistance. Each of the three has its own unchanging rule and law. That of the first is that we should depart as far as possible from the common practice; that of the second, that we should advance by trickery, wile and deceit; that of the third, that we should put our work through to completion not in hap-hazard fashion, but everywhere systematically. I am advised, then, by the directive principle that I must depart, by the Disarrangement of the Accustomed Order, from this present way of writing.

            This Disarrangement is Apparent, or Real, or Mixed. Apparent Disarrangement of the Order of Letters takes place when through Inversion we depart from the customary way of writing. Real Disarrangement takes place when, abiding by the customary way of writing

 

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we separate the letters from one another and scatter them about in different sequence. Mixed Disarrangement takes place when we abide by Order and yet break its continuity by Non-significant letters. These three rivulets from the stream of Disarrangement, like so many executive principles, constitute three kinds of trickery, wile and deceit, whereby we must here make our advance. And these three kinds of trickery, wile and deceit are later fettered by the completive principle, or proximate cause, with system and fixed rules of art and each one, being confined strictly within its own limits, is enabled to present itself to us in its highest perfection and true nature. This true nature known, the secret brightens upon us by Inverted Order, by Separated Order, or by Order under Obsession, as it were, of other letters,—the secret which would otherwise have remained hidden and concealed.

            Now the Modes corresponding to these kinds of trickery, wile and deceit are named by our approximate principle. Thus, classifying as above, I will say that the Modes of our general division, Disarrangement are these three: (1) Inverted Writing; (2) The Scattering, or Strewing, of Letters; (3) The Superinduction of Non-significant Letters. Latin, in accordance with the advice of the proximate completive principle, these Modes are in their various subdivisions more specifically defined by descriptive epithets. This will be seen presently in the case of each Mode individually; for I now proceed to unfold the Modes singly and in order.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CHAPTER THE FIFTH.

 

On Inverted Writing,

in general and in particular.

 

            The first Mode connected with the Order of letters is Inverted Writing itself. We must consider this Mode first, inasmuch as it is the simplest Mode, departing from the customary Position of letters, or way of writing, by Inversion alone. Now this Inversion may take place in one of three ways: simply, or accompanied by Inverted Position of letters, or clothed in a kind of finery or dress. The first method I shall call Simple Inversion; the second, Newly-Altered Inversion; the third, Artificially-Clothed Inversion.

            Simple Inversion takes place when we depart from the customary way of writing. The Customary, or common, way of writing is to write the letters from the left hand to the right through every line; though formerly the letters were written in alternate lines from left to right and from right to left. On the origin of this common way of writing, Nauclerus, Vol. I. Gener. 54, has commented rather happily. This common way is departed from (1) by the Hebrews, who write from right to left; (2) by the Syrians, the Indians, the Ethiopians, and the Chinese, who write perpendicularly, either from the top to the bottom or from the bottom to the top; (3) by the ancient Goths, who, according to Zwinger’s view, which is, however, erroneous (see Herm. Hugo, De Prim. Scrib. Orig., c.8), wrote from the top to the bottom and then back again from the bottom to the top. Should anyone, then, care to amuse himself with this kind of secret-making,–a kind which is, however, not over-safe,–let him take as an example the following scheme. Beginning at the right, he must go from the bottom to the top, as though ascending a flight of stairs, and thence in reverse direction, to the bottom again, and so on through alternate lines. The process may be varied by writing on diagonal lines and beginning at the right.

 

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s

 

            Such schemes as these, of which Herman Hugo, De Prim. Scrib. Orig., c.8, gives in an appended table twenty-four Modes, are, as may be gathered from Bk.III.c.10, of no slight use in Steganographics.

            Newly-Altered Inversion takes place when we not only abide by the way of writing in accordance with which (for example) we write, after the Hebrew fashion, from right to left, but also construct the letters themselves by beginning at the right hand and going to the left, thus inverting the Form of the letters at the same time that we invert the writing.(1)

            Artificially-Clothed Inversion takes place when, to avert suspicion, we adopt such a method that the letters, while still running backward, are clothed in words that read forward. An example of such writing is the well known couplet:

 

Signa te signa, temere me tangis et angis

Roma tibi subito motibue ibit amor.

 

            Since, however, this Mode is fitted for the use of learned poets and others, and has little application to the every-day intercourse of life, and to letter-writing, we have no occasion to dwell on it at length here. To this head seems to belong the clever device which consists in so writing, that, whether the letters are read from left to right or from right to left, perfect words and perfect discourse,

________

(1) Does this mean, for instance, writing thus - @insert CHARLES backwards

 

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albeit different, are in each case formed. There was circulated not long since a composition of this kind extolling the Bohemians, which, if read backward, turned to their disparagement. But since this method has properly to do with the back-ward reading of words themselves, and not with that of letters, and since, further, as I have already said, it in no way serves the purposes of our art, I dismiss it from further consideration; enough to have spoken of it once for all here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

69

 

CHAPTER THE SIXTH.

 

On Direct Ordinary Strewing of Letters,

Saliently accomplished.

 

            The second Mode connected with the Order of Letters is writing by process of Transference, or Scattering of Letters. Here the letters which for the purpose of revealing the secret, have been placed or are to be placed in Order are interchangeably transferred and transposed from their own position to another place or line. I say transposed, for this Mode too may not inaptly be called by the name Transposition. But since that word has been more fittingly reserved for the Interchange of Letters, which is treated in Bk. V., we do better to use here the word Transference. And, yet, perhaps, the process might more appropriately be called,–by the approximate principle, namely,–the Dispersion, or the Strewing, or the Scattering, of Letters. Howbeit, this Scattering takes place by Ordinary, by Arbitrary, or by Artificial arrangement.

            That Scattering, or Strewing, of Letters, again, which depends on a fixed order and a fixed principle of arrangement, takes place by Direct Mode, by Oblique Mode, or by Inverted Mode.

            Direct Ordinary Strewing, in its turn, takes place, on the basis of process, Saliently, by Graduation, or Successively.

            Salient Strewing of Letters takes place when by a leap, as it were, the letters jump from one position to another, and this process may be accomplished on the basis of words, or on the basis of lines, or on the basis of a different order. (1) On the basis of words the process is accomplished in various ways. For either all the letters of the words are Salient letters, or certain ones only. If certain ones only are such, then the process may be accomplished (for example) in the case of two words by transferring and interchanging the first letters, and also the last letters, of the two words thus taken together. Something was said on this head when, in the first chapter of this Book, in the Paragraph beginning Alteration by Transposition I discussed speech.

 

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@why 188 here?

 

CHAPTER THE SEVENTH.

 

On Direct Ordinary Scattering of Letters, of the second and third kinds; also on Oblique Scattering and Inverted Scattering.

 

            We have had Salient Strewing of Letters; we come now to Gradual Strewing. This takes place when the Scattering, or Strewing, increases and diminishes gradually, by gradations. Thus, first one letter, then two, then three, then four letters respectively preceding. This process will be made clearer by an example. The letters of the sentence O discite justiciam moniti, et non temnere divos will be scattered with the following result: Do ciis usttei mmonicia tnonitie nertem ived so. There remains the Successive Strewing of Letters, which takes place when we divide the letters of the secret sentence equally into two, three, or more groups, and then take from the first, second, and third groups successively a single letter and write it down. So, for example, by dividing into two parts the sentence Benefaciendum omnibus, we obtain the following arrangement of the letters: Bdeunme ofmanciibeuns. This process may be accomplished by various other Modes. So much, then, for Direct Strewing. We come now to Oblique Strewing, where we advance by roundabout methods. For example, taking two secrets at once, we separate from one another the letters thereof and then scatter them; these being thus intermingled, we then, over and above this, bring into use the preceding devices. Finally, Inverted Strewing of Letters takes place when we advance by Inverted Mode. For example, beginning at the end, we make the letters read backward, and we do this either simply and without modification, or in part only. Assuming that we read backward with the letters in part only, we then make the rest of the letters read forward. Let the proverb just used serve as an example: Benefaciendum omnibus. Here, first dividing the letters into two groups, we read backward thus: Ndeuimcoamf neinbeubs. The usefulness of all these Modes too, in those steganographic Modes explained under the names of Geradiel, Bydiel, Uriel, Pyrichiel, Soleviel, Menadiel and Macariel, in Bk. III. c.11. is, as can there be seen, found to be not slight.

 

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CHAPTER THE EIGHTH

On Arbitrary Strewing of Letters, or

Strewing by the Use of a Key.

 

            I have set forth that Strewing which protects itself by a kind of order of its own, reached by a fixed principle of arrangement. We come now to Arbitrary Strewing, the kind of Strewing, namely, that depends on an arbitrarily selected principle, and reaches through this its method of arrangement. This external principle Porta, Bk.II. c.15, calls a key; the Mode in question is there presented by Porta rather obscurely. In order to come to a better understanding of the Mode, we must first make clear what is meant by a key. Key, as here understood metaphorically, is used in a general sense, in a special sense, and in an individual sense. In the general sense, when one understands a Mode of secret-making, he is said indefinitely to have the key. Thus, he who understands the principles of arrangement set forth in the preceding chapters, and, likewise, he who understands the laws, or incantations, contained in Bk. III., has found, we should say, the keys. In the special sense, the term key is used when we bring into use with accompanying rules, an external instrument wherein is contained the principle which locks and unlocks the secret. Since this process, again, is accomplished in two ways, either by means of some external sen@@nce, letter or note, or by means of an instrument, different from these and constructed with skill, Porta, B.II. c.15, uses the word key in its individual sense, with reference to certain words taken at will from outside the sentence and brought into use. In this case the key is nothing else than such a sentence or such fixed words as those having the understanding of secret writing select or invent at their own will, to serve as a gauge whereby to make and unmake the arrangement; otherwise stated, it is such words as we employ to conceal the secret from others, but to deliver it for disclosure to the one who has understanding of the subject. In this strictly specialized sense, the word is used with a different signification from that wherein reference is made to a skillfully constructed external instrument, in which also lies the power of locking and unlocking, and which is treated in c.9, below. Furthermore, in this narrowest sense of the word, even alphabets, letters, points, virgules and numbers are called keys, inasmuch as they are employed as secondary locks on other devices. I shall call attention to these keys, in their proper places, as often as

 

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the need arises. This much being prefaced, let us now take up the Mode at hand, of which the method of procedure may be conveniently learned thus: Let us have as the secret text which it is desired to communicate to a single friend the sentence, Spinola hatt Oppenheimb einbekonmen, dafur er Wormbs gerne gehabt. To begin with, let our first care be to count the letters of the given text; they are in this case fifty-seven. When the number of letters has been found, we must mark on a sheet of paper the same number of points, equal distances apart. This done, we must, in the second place, take as a key wherewith to hide the secret the sentence Castum foderat Lucretia pectus or some other similar to it, the choice of sentence being a matter of individual preference. To this we will join the word Algazel, as being a barbarous word, and one, therefore, not likely to occur to the mind. The use of this key is to show the position which each letter will take by process of transference. This process takes place and is accomplished thus: We observe the number representing the place the key-letter holds in the alphabet, and then, counting the points in order, substitute, in the place corresponding to the number of this letter, the letter of the secret text. Thus, suppose the first letter of the secret text to be a or b, and, likewise, the first letter of the words taken from without by the key to be c or d, the first of which occupies the third place in the alphabet, and the second the fourth place. Then the letter a or b of the secret text, following the count of the key, will take on the paper either the third or the fourth place in the line of points, according as the first letter of the key is c or d. And so we must continue till all the words of the epistle have been used up. Now, this being understood, our third care will be to make an accurate application of what has just been said. This will be done by first writing down the secret text, leaving between the rows, or lines, a space of sufficient width to allow us to write underneath these letter for letter, the key, and also above each letter of the key the number representing the place such letter holds in the alphabet. If the letters of the key do not correspond in number to the letters of the secret text, we must continue to repeat the letters of the key until the number

 

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of letters in each line is the same; thus,

 

@insert table

 

            When all that has been so far described has been done, turn to the line of points already made, and place, in the place belonging to the third point, the letter s, in the place belonging to the immediately following point the letter p, and in the space of the seventeenth point from this the letter i. That the letters may be written in the right order, two things have to be observed. First, when a letter, or character, has been set down, we must then, in reckoning the order of the letters, begin with the space immediately following this letter, which is the last written, and count forward to the last point of the line; then, continuing the count from this number, we must begin again with the spaces left empty at the head of the line; and so on. Secondly, the places of the points already occupied must be passed over without being counted. This statement is made clearer by the subjoined example, if one cares to follow, as here sufficiently directed, the process leading to the arrangement herein contained: Oesphtoiedmne lurreea @imbgrrbpeam hkhog fane puntebatu iemnnobe.

 

@insert table

 

76

 

CHAPTER THE NINTH.

 

On Artificial Transference or Strewing of Letters, or

Transference by the Mediation of a Table.

 

            We come now to Scattering according to the arrangement of a table constructed with skill. This Scattering I have distinguished from the former kind, which is accomplished by the mediation of an applied key. For although a table, or an external instrument used at times instead of a table, might seem to be a key, still that there is between the two a real distinction is shown by the following considerations: a key consisting of words or letters depends rather on each worker’s individual choice, while a table depends on the arrangement of skilled artists; again, keys are sometimes used in conjunction with tables, as will be seen again and again in the following Books. Now the kind of Scattering that comes up for consideration in this chapter may be learned from the following table, as follows. (This table was prepared by Jacobus de Silvestria, a Florentine, and I have introduced it here, taking it from his Italian-Latin treatise, printed by permission at Rome in the year 1526 under Pope Clement VII. and entitled Opus Novum.)

 

[Table to be inserted.]

 

            The table has the following arrangement: Let it be of seven squares both in length and in breadth, each line the same, and let the squares be formed by rather thick lines drawn with ink on a piece of paper, so that, when another paper designed for the writing is placed above, the lines may show through distinctly. This done, the letters are to be distributed thus: The first letter of each word must be put in the fourth square, the second in the sixth, the third in the eighth, the fourth in the second, the fifth in the tenth, the sixth in the twelfth, the seventh in the fourteenth, the eighth in the first, the ninth in the ninth, the tenth in the third, the eleventh in the eleventh, the twelfth in the fifth, the thirteenth in the thirteenth, the fourteenth in the seventh. If the fourth square is not large enough to hold the first letters of the following words, put the remaining words, according to the same arrangement, in the fourteen squares immediately following.

 

77

 

So, again, the fourteen squares immediately following these twenty-eight, will later come into use, in case the eighteenth square becomes filled with letters. For always, until the fourth square is filled, the squares between two cross lines are found ready to receive successively the transposed letters of the secret. If, on the other hand, owing to the shortness of the words, it happens that some squares are left empty, these may be filled with Non-significant letters, which, however, must, on account of their different character, be distinguished by some sign. The confident need put his attention but to this, that, in placing the table underneath the paper, he be careful to have the top and the sides of the table exactly in place. If, then, the scattered letters of this table be brought together in accordance with these directions, you may read the following: Verba hominum duas habent ansas: alteram, qua in bonam, alteram, qua in malam partem rapiuntur: Epictetus. And, Deus cum differt auxilium, exercet rogantem, non repellit pulsantem. If you write the letters of the secret over the heavy perpendicular lines, and the Non-significant letters in the squares and over the cross lines, there will then be no need of notes or signs to distinguish the Non-significant from the Significant letters.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

78

 

CHAPTER THE TENTH.

 

On the Superinduction of Non-significant Letters by the Preparation

of Real, False and Mixed Speech.

 

            Not only is the Order of Collocation of letters broken by Inversion of writing and by strew-Scattering, which have been the subjects of my discourse up to the present time; but, that the deception may be greater, the Order is disarranged by the obsessionary Superinduction of new letters, which contribute nothing to the true sense, and may be called Non-significant letters. This branch of the subject must now engage our attention. In the matter of this Superinduction, then, there come into consideration the Object, the Subject and the Mode. The Object is such letters as are used singly, or in conjunction with Significant letters in a single word, or, very frequently, as sole constituents either of one Non-significant word or of several such. For, this kind of Superinduction of Non-significant letters is performed in a variety of ways. The Subject is the above-mentioned letters which contribute to the secret sense, the Order and consecutiveness of which letters is obsessed and interrupted in various ways by the afore-mentioned Non-significant letters. The Mode consists in the Preparation of words and, consequently, of discourse, of one kind or another. For, this is everywhere our object here: by placing alongside Significant letters as many Non-significant letters as shall suffice to constitute words, either Con-significant or Non-significant, to bring about deception by the appearance of real or false speech, or speech in itself signifying nothing. Now this Preparation of words belongs to real speech, to false speech and to artificial speech. Whence arise three different Modes. By way of concluding this chapter, I shall make some general remarks explanatory of these Modes, and so speak of their name, their use, and their order. As respects the name, we may call the first Mode a Steganographic Mode, and the last a Polygraphic Mode. The first we may so call for the reason that Trithemius in the two Book of his Steganographia devotes himself entirely to the setting forth and explaining of this sort of Mode, and does not touch upon the other kind. Furthermore, in this method the Significant letters are brought close together with greater secrecy and are hidden with a more manifold covering. For, such suggestion belongs to the word @insert Greek.

 

79

 

The Polygraphic Mode I call by this name for the reason, again, that Trithemius treats especially of this Mode in the fourth Book of his Polygraphia, and for a further reason which I shall mention on its place. Bk.IV.c.8. As respects the Mode that lies between these two, let that also rejoice in the name Steganographic, since it, as well as the other, is, though only secondarily, treated by Trithemius in his Steganographia.

 

 

 

EXAMPLE OF ADVACHIEL.

“Joh. Trith. Johanni Euripano Carmelitano Conventus

Damensis.

 

            Mandavit nobis Serenissimus Princeps noster Marchio Brandenburgensis, tibi scriberemus, ut quantosyus ad nos Coloniam revertaris et afferas tecum@ea, qu栐rior tuus, Majestati su捊promisit. Nos Opus nostrum, de laudibus Sanctorum absolvimus, quod te, ut rescribatur, expectat. Moras igitur omnes rescinde, ne Principis animum offendas. Hesterno vespere Capellanus noster Theodorious a partibus Trans-Rhenanis ad nos reversus est Et Steganographiam nostram, quam tantopere videre desyderas, attulit. Vale ex Ursulo, 15 die Mens. Xbris, Anno Christi, 1505; i.e. . . . . . .

            Formula: “Advachiel Thresby chamerontis hayr plassu nadiel marso neany peano sayr fabelron chaturmo melros ersoty caduberosin anson”; i.e. @Heb hinden.(1)

 

TENTH MODE, HANAEL,

or Chapter 41.

 

            Formula: “Hanael myrno chamerosy purmy Asiriel Aphorsy Lamodin to Carmephin drubas asutroy sody barushon usefer palormy thulnear asmeron chorene madusyn colevy busarethon duys marpheli thubra nasaron venear fabel ronti”; i.e. in post duas due et una concluditur una.(2)

 

EXAMPLE OF HANAEL.

“Johann. Trith. Georgio Sibuto, S.

 

            Modestum te in omnibus, et eris sine invidia gloriosus. Est autem Modestia virtus, moderatrix animi passionum, gratum et spectabiliem cunctis hominem reddens intuetibus: ut sermones proferat, libra justici栥xaminatos: sitque gravitas in sensu, et pondus in verbis, modusque. Non decet, viros Literarum studio deditos, contentionibus inservire, et rebus utiliori bus neglectis, pro inutili sermone, committere bellum, quo et mentes pr棥ptorum, a rectitudinis evelluntur statu, et auditorum corda, ne ad

________

(1) Begin at the end. Cf. the second formula to Buriel.

(2) . . . . . after two, two, and one is completed by one. With the exception of the first part this formula is essentially the same as the first formula to Asiriel.

 

188

 

The Polygraphic Mode I call by this name for the reason, again, that Trithemius treats especially of this Mode in the fourth Book of his Polygraphia, and for a further reason which I shall mention on its place. Bk.IV.c.8. As respects the Mode that lies between these two, let that also rejoice in the name Steganographic, since it, as well as the other, is, though only secondarily, treated by Trithemius in his Steganographia. The ultimate and essential reason for this distinction of names is that we may have in an art words of fixed meaning. The use of these Modes is very far-reaching. For although they have their own individual character, it is possible, when we wish still further to cover and conceal the secret, to use them in conjunction with the most of the other Modes, whether the accomplishment of these latter depends on Transference or on Transposition. The first Mode, however, is of most general usefulness, since it contains, for the most part, a common, epistolary style of composition, well fitted for daily use. Whence it happens that, while the Polygraphic Modes depend on a fixed formula and are, further, of doubtful value, by this principal Steganographic Mode, we not only hide the secret text, but, if by some chance, the epistle comes into the hands of any other than him for whom it has been written, we preclude the possibility of such a one suspecting that there is any secret hidden therein; for he sees that, as far as the outer form is concerned, common topics are discussed. The same is not true of false speech, and much less is it true of all other Modes, however hidden and untraceable be the thread that binds the secret. For if a succession of strange characters, or of letters which convey no sense, be detected in an epistle, immediately the suspicion arises that there is some secret contained therein; whence it happens that such epistles are held back. Thus we see, in this matter of detail, the especial utility of Steganography,—a utility which cannot be found in the Polygraphic Modes. Then, again, we must here notice the more general characteristics of these Modes; for, the Steganographic Mode is first in dignity, but, in itself, more laborious, while the other is easier but artistically superior. Whence it is that Trithemius requires for the Steganographic Modes a persevering, zealous and practised pupil, whereas in the Polygraphic Modes he extols the ease of the process; see Praefat. sub.

 

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tit. quae sunt utilit. But, you will say, if Steganography is so laborious, what possible value, especially in a time of need, can it have, or what good can it do men who are already busied in other ways. To which I make answer: granted that this method causes the novice some little labor; still, he who bends himself to the task, or is not wholly destitute of natural ability, will easily overcome the difficulty. Furthermore, a secret meaning is usually expressed, or may be expressed, in very few letters; whence the result, as a rule, that, the body being meagre, the covering need not be great. So, if the thought be short, ’twill not cost you much labor to conceal it. Now I shall discuss these three Modes in the order in which I have advanced them. Thus, the whole of the Third Book will be whatever remains to be said of this Mode, as well as the second and third Modes, will be reserved for the Fourth Book. And I would have you note that, in the course of the detailed presentation there made, the method of procedure is somewhat different in the Fourth Book from what it is in the Third Book. For since in the Third Book I have undertaken the elucidation of the Books of Trithemius’s Steganographia, I have there, necessarily, also been obliged to have regard for Trithemius’s order of arrangement, and to connect the links of the chain according to precedent. But where I have been at liberty to advance with freer movements, I have made it my first care to bring everything down to the straight line.