Thanks to Alfred Dodd &
Doris Davis for preparation of Text
"The world's a bubble and the life of man less than a span" -- Francis Bacon
A.D.303 St. Albans martyred.The first Christian Martyr in England.
1250 Roger Bacon, the English monk with the astonishingly modern mind wrote "A man is crazy who writes a secret in any other way than one which will conceal it from the vulgar." He listed seven different ways of writing secretly. To him is attributed the so-called Voynich Manuscript, parts of which have still not been deciphered.
1261-1321 Dante. One of the first intellectual rebels against the Holy Church. Wrote in cipher. Bacon adopted all of Dante's methods of secret writing: numbers, anagrams, printing errors, special type setting, hieroglyphics, allegorical pictures, emblematic head and tailpiece, watermarks, etc. ( He was a secret ethical teacher.)
1453 Capture of Constantinople by the Turks. Said to be the beginning of the Renaissance in Europe, which ends with the death of Elizabeth 1603 in England. (150 years)
1455 May -- The Wars of the Roses began in an open battle at St. Albans
1456 Guttenberg -- printing with movable type (Germany)
1485 The final battle of the Wars of the Roses. Won by a Lancastrian who had been in exile in Brittany, Henry of Richmond. Bottle of Bosworth Field. Richard III was killed. Henry of Richmond became Henry VII, the first of the Tudors, father of Henry VIII.
1492 Christopher Columbus sailing west to open up a new route to the east (since the Turks had blocked the trade routes in 1453) discovers the "new world"
1498 Erasmus (of Rotterdam) to Oxford. Friend of Sir Thomas More.
1510 Actual birth date of Edmund Spenser (but see 1553).
1516 Queen Mary born, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
1543-1607 Dates for Sir Edward Dyer, candidate for authorship of Shake-speare plays.
1532/33 Queen Elizabeth born, daughter of Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester born, fifth son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland.
1533 Montaigne (birth date)
1536 Ann Boleyn is beheaded. Her husband, Henry VIII, marries Jane Seymour and Princess Elizabeth is declared illegitimate.
1548 Princess Elizabeth's alleged intrigue with Admiral Seymour becomes the subject of a public inquiry and results in Seymour's execution.
1549 Sir Roger Ascham, the famous scholar, becomes tutor to Princess Elizabeth.
1550-1604 Dates for Edward De Vere 17th Earl of Oxford, candidate for Shakespeare authorship. Robert Dudley marries Amy Robsart.
1552-1618 Dates for Sir Walter Raleigh, another candidate for authorship
1553-4 Death of young King Edward VI, son of Henry VIII.
Queen Mary (Henry's eldest daughter) ascends the Throne. The Duke of Northumberland is beheaded for declaring Lady Jane Grey Queen of England. She was married to Northumberland's son, Guilford Dudley. Lady Jane Grey and her husband are afterwards beheaded.
Robert Dudley aided his father, the Duke of Northumberland, in the attempt to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne. Young Robert was imprisoned and sentenced to death for this. His sentence was not carried out.
Princess Elizabeth is committed to the Tower under suspicion of treason, allegedly plotting to secure the Throne to the Protestant Succession. Elizabeth Tudor met and fell in love with Robert Dudley in the Tower.
(July) King Philip of Spain lands in England and is married to Queen Mary.
Birth of woman later to become Countess of Southampton. (Lord Southampton's mother.) Was she the dark lady of the sonnets? (Fuller)
Falsified "Birth Date" of Edmund Spenser. This was done to allow him to be a credible "mask" for the Shepheardes Calendar, published in 1579. It was the work of a youth, and Spenser was actually nearly 70 at that time!
1554 Act of Parliament established the right of the daughters of Henry VIII to become queens should events work out that way.
1553-1558 Reign of Mary, daughter of Henry VIII ("Bloody Mary"). She was married to King Philip of Spain. Protestants were persecuted in England during her reign.
1557 Elizabeth and Dudley secretly married (the first time) in the Tower.
1558 Death of Queen Mary. On November 17 -- Elizabeth accedes to the throne. 25 years old. Empty treasury. The nation about equally divided between Catholic and Protestant, and therefore her legitimacy was doubted by about 1/2 of her subjects.
King Philip of Spain, husband of late Queen Mary had his Spanish watchdog in the Court. The Spanish policy was to subjugate England by fair means of foul; to make England a vassal state in the Imperial Empire. Protestants divided into 2 distinct parties, Puritans and Church of England.
Prudent policy of Elizabeth: She made the Bible the authority; interpretation left to conscience. Her personal views remained locked with the sanctity of her own breast, a policy which kept her enemies from openly declaring war. She saved the country from internecine strife (as in France and Germany) and made England a Protestant power.
One of Elizabeth's first acts after her Accession, is to appoint Robert Dudley Master of the Horse, an honourable and valuable post which gave him a Lodging at the Court and personal attendance on the Queen.
1559 6 Feb -- The Speaker, Sir T. Gargrave, with the Privy Council and some thirty members of the House of Commons, demanded an audience . . . and they requested her in the name of the nation to take to herself a husband. . .
"She replied four days later that she intended to spend her own life for the good of her people, and that if she married she would choose a husband who would be as careful of them as herself. . .Children were uncertain blessings and might grow up ungracious: For her it would be enough 'that a Marble Stone should declare that a Queen reigned such a time, Lived and Died a Virgin'." Froude, England VOL. VI p. 159. She let it be known that England was her open husband, and that she was married to the State metaphorically equally as much as the Pope to his Church.
Eliz thus proclaims herself The Virgin Queen. She is "married to the State" Her father's policy also was hers: "Trust NO ONE." Letter of Count De Feria (Philip's watchdog): regarding behaviour of Elizabeth toward Dudley: "Her Majesty visits him in his Chamber day and night." (18th April)
Second letter of Count De Feria: "Sometimes she appears as if she wants to marry him (Arch Duke Ferdinand), and speaks like a woman who will only accept a great Prince; and then they say she is in love with Lord Robert and never lets him leave her."
10th May Letter of Schafanoya, Venetian Ambassador: "My Lord Robert is in very great favour and very intimate with Her Majesty." "De Quadra accompanied Elizabeth and her lover (Robert Dudley) in a Water Party down the Thames when they behaved with discreditable freedom." (Dictionary of National Biography XVI, p. 114)
The Venetian Envoy Surian afterwards wrote, "The love which Her Majesty bears for Milord Robert is so great that she will eventually take him as her husband or none at all." (Dispatch, Giac Surian, Paris.)
Letter of Ambassador De Quadra (another of Philip's watchdogs) to Philip of Spain: "I have heard from a person who is in the habit of giving me veracious news that Lord Robert had sent to poison his wife. . .All the Queen has done. . .in the matter of her marriage. . . is to keep Lord Robert's enemies and the country engaged with words until this wicked deed of killing his wife is consummated. I am told some extraordinary things about this intimacy." (November)
27 Dec, De Quadra: "She pretends to me that she would like to be a nun, and live in a cell, and tell her beads from morning till night. . .a true daughter of a wicked mother."
1560-1580 Growing patriotism, nationalism in England.
English language also growing up: coining of new words. Band of writers full of passionate utterance. Full orchestra of poets, wits, philosophers and learned men.
1560-61 March 7, 1560: Letter of De Quadra: "I have just been with the Queen. She has treated me like a dog. The youth (Dudley) must have been complaining to her of a message I sent him three days ago. . . Lord Robert is the worst young fellow I ever encountered. He is heartless, spiritless, treacherous and false. There is not a man in England who does not cry out upon him as the Queen's ruin."
March 15, Letter of De Quadra: "Lord Robert says that if he lives a year, he will be in another position from that which he now holds. Every day he presumes more and more. It is not said he means to divorce his wife."
Early in 1560 Amy Robsart, wife of Robert Dudley, who had hitherto lived in the country, was removed to Cumnor Place, Berkshire, the house of Anthony Forster, a creature of her husband's She had a terminal illness -- or so it was given out.
Aug 13 -- See Calendar of State Papers (Report to Lord Burleigh as to the open assertions of Mother Anne Dowe of Brentwood, concerning the condition of the Queen. She said that the Queen was with child by Robert Dudley. She was sent to prison.)
Sept 8 -- Amy Robsart found lying dead with neck broken at the foot of a staircase. It is generally believed that Dudley or Elizabeth was accessory to the crime. It has also been said that she committed suicide to pave the way for his marriage. However, Froude believed that Dudley was innocent of any direct participation in the crime, but that she was murdered by persons who hoped to profit by his elevation to the Throne. Froude: "What followed is full of obscurity. De Quadra's letters for the next six weeks that followed the murder are lost. There remain only at Simancas abstracts of their contents which tell the story most imperfectly. That the Queen would attempt to marry Dudley now that she was free, was the immediate and universal expectation."
Sept 11 -- Letter of De Quadra, "I met the Secretary Cecil whom I know to be in disgrace. Lord Robert, I was made aware, was endeavouring to depose him of his place . . . He said . . . he perceived the most manifest ruin impending over the Queen through her intimacy with Lord Robert. [Dudley] "had made himself Master of the business of the State and of the person of the Queen, to the extreme injury of the realm, with the intention of marrying her; she herself was shutting herself up in her palace to the peril of her health and her life. . .He was therefore determined to retire in the country although he supposed they would send him to the Tower (Cecil).
"He implored me for the love of God to remonstrate with the Queen, to persuade her not utterly to throw herself away as she was doing . . . Lord Robert, he twice said, would be better in paradise than here . . ."
"He told me the queen cared nothing for foreign Princes. . . Last of all he said they were thinking of destroying Lord Robert's wife. They had given out that she was ill: but she was not ill at all; she was very well, and was taking care not to be poisoned: God, he trusted, would never permit such a crime to be accomplished, or allow so wicked a conspiracy to prosper."
"The day after this conversation, the Queen herself told me that Lord Robert's wife was dead or nearly so, and begged me to say nothing about it. Assuredly it was a matter full of shame and infamy, but for all that I do not feel sure that she will immediately marry him, or that she will marry him at all. She wants resolution to take any decided step; and, as Cecil says, she wishes to act like her father (i.e. to be the sole head of the State without any sharing of power with a husband-consort)."
It is openly reported (See Dic. Nat. Biog.) that the Queen was secretly betrothed to Dudley, and that they were married at Lord Pembroke's House sometime in late September. Cecil, either in appearance or reality, consented to be reconciled to them.
Sept 12 -- Queen Eliz and Dudley wed secretly.
November. The Queen's "looks" are quite consistent with a pregnant woman.
31 December - Throckmorton (English Ambassador to French Court) concerned with the bruits and rumors. His letter to Cecil suggests that he was aware that the Queen was married secretly. . . .He was asked point blank by the Spanish Ambassador (at the French Court) if the Queen was not secretly married to Lord Robert. The bruits of her doings, be very strange in all courts and countries." The secret marriage was an accomplished fact, a State Secret.
December -- a secret despatch of the Spanish Envoy advises that the Queen is expecting a child by Dudley." (Escurial Papers.)
1561 Dictionary of National Biography XVI p. 114 "It is herein recorded that on Jan. 21 1560/1 Queen Elizabeth was secretly married to Robert Dudley in the House of Lord Pembroke before a number of witnesses." This is one day off from the date Francis Bacon is assumed to have been born. Marriage also took place on Sept. 12 (see above).
Jan. 22 -- De Quadra writes to Philip of Spain: "If she marry Lord Robert without his Majesty's sanction, your Majesty has but to give a hint to her subjects and she will lose her Throne. . . Without your Majesty's sanction she will do nothing in public; And it may be when she sees she has nothing to hope for from your Majesty, she will make a worse plunge to satisfy her appetite. She is infatuated to a degree which would be a notable fault in any woman, much more in one of her exalted rank." In the same letter De Quadra says that Dudley assured him that if the King of Spain would only countenance the marriage, they would restore the Roman Catholic religion. "Some say she is a Mother already, but this I do not believe."
Mme D. von Kunow discovered a letter from Dudley in the Spanish archives, begging Philip to use his influence to secure his public acknowledgement as Prince Consort."
Jan 22 -- The Queen was in residence at York Place and had no public engagements or interviews.
Jan. 22 -- - Aquarius with Aquarius rising) Son Francis Bacon born to Sir Nicholas Bacon and Lady Anne, according to outer records. May have been named after Francois, the little French King who had recently died, leaving his young widow, little Mary Queen of Scots, to her strange destiny.
Francis Bacon is born either at "York House" (i.e. the home of Sir Nicholas Bacon) "or York Place" (i.e. Whitehall, the Queen's Palace), according to the statement of Francis Bacon's Chaplain and Secretary, Dr. Rawley, who took this method of telling the world that Francis Bacon was a Royal Tudor; and that there was a mystery regarding his birth and parentage.
25 Januarie Baptizatus fuit Mr. Franciscos Bacon. He was registered at St. Martin's Church, London, and was described as "Mr. Franciscus Bacon." Why should the word "Mr." be used in the registering of an infant's baptism? No other infant had such a distinction.
He was born to the Queen and Leicester, an adulterine bastard, morganatic marriage. (Morganatic means marriage of a king or queen to one of lesser rank with no possibility of their children being heirs to throne.) But if birth had been made public the Catholic reaction would have been severe, even the Protestants would have declared for Mary of Scotland!)
February -- De Quadra write to Philip that he had seen Elizabeth. He heard her confession. She was no angel, she had not resolved to marry Lord Robert or anyone. She promised to do nothing without Philip's sanction. "As there is danger, I would not leave her without hope. If we let this woman become desperate, she may do something which may fatally injure us, although she destroys herself at the same time."
1561-1621 Dates for Countess of Pembroke, another candidate for authorship of Shake-speare works.
1561-1642 Dates for William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby, another candidate for authorship.
1562 When the Queen was ill and in fear of her life, she asked her Council to make Lord Robert Dudley Protector of the Kingdom with a grant of 20,000 per annum.
1563 Roger Ascham began to write his book, The Schoolmaster, on the education of young noblemen. His theory was that young children were "sooner allured by love than driven by beatings to attain learning." The Queen had requested that he write the book. He was her former schoolmaster, the most learned scholar in England. It was intended as a curriculum for the training of someone in particular. Francis would have been about five years old when the book was finished, 1566.
1564 April 26 -- William Shakspere baptized at Stratford. Son of John Shakspere and Mary Arden, illiterate parents.
The child Francis Bacon is taken to Court and the Queen calls him her "Little Lord Keeper."
Sir Nicholas Bacon is commanded to build a new home for himself at Gorhambury. The Queen visits this home repeatedly in the following years while young Francis is growing up.
Robert Dudley is created the Earl of Leicester and is the recipient of large grants of money and high offices.
Melville, the Scotch Ambassador, reports that Elizabeth "took me to her Bed chamber, and opened a little desk where there were divers little pictures wrapped in paper, their names written with her own hand. Upon the first she took up was written, "My Lord's Picture." This was Leicester's portrait."
1565-78 Queen pays numerous public and secret visits to Gorhambury (to keep an eye on Francis ?) "You have made your house too little for your Lordship," the Queen says to Nicholas Bacon. "Your Majesty hath made me too big for my house," he replies. (He later added a new wing for her benefit)
When Francis was about 5 years old the Queen asked him his age. He answered with much discretion, being but a Boy, that he was two years younger than Her Majesty's happy Reign: with which answer the Queen was much taken."
1566 August -- Leicester told the French Ambassador that he had "known her [the Queen] from her eighth year better than any man on earth. He added that he was as much in favour as ever, and was convinced the Queen would choose no other than himself, but was uncertain whether the Queen wished to marry him or not (i.e. publicly).
Roger Ascham's book The Schoolmaster finished. The dated preface (30 Oct, 1566) was kept in hiding with other manuscripts for 200 years, and was published by James Bennet in 1761. In it, Ascham compares the Queen's life with David's life. "Most Noble Princess . . . Thinking of David's life, his former miseries, his later felicities, of God's dealing with him to bring happiness to his present time, and safety to his Posterity, I have had for many like causes, many like thoughts one of the Life and State of your Majesty.
"God said to David . . . 'Thine own seed shall sit in thy seat,' which is the greatest comfort that can come to a great Prince . . . And in the end he had the joyful blessing from Nathan, which all true English hearts daily do pray that God will send the same to your Majesty, 'I will set up thy seed after thee.'
"Yet when God had shown him the greatest favour . . . God suffered him to fall into the deepest pit of wickedness, to commit the cruellest murder, the shame fullest adultery.". . .
"He did not stumble by ignorance, nor slide by weakness, nor only fall by wilfulness, but went to it advisedly . . . to bring mischief to pass . . . Yet God had not taken from David His Grace.
"So out of this foul matter is gathered the fairest example, and best lesson for Prince and private man . . . As in a fair glass your Majesty shall see and acknowledge, by God's dealing with David, even very many like dealings of God with your Majesty. And in the end have as David had . . . Prosperity and surest felicity for you, yours and your posterity." Dodd observes: This letter was written to a virgin Queen with no prospect of posterity openly in sight. What had the sin of David to do with an immaculate Virgin Queen?
1567 November 10 -- Robert Essex born. Outwardly, the son of Lettice Knollys, queen's cousin, married to Walter Hereford, Earl of Essex. There is no record of Robert's birth at Herefordshire to his reputed mother, Lettice Knollys, daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, whose wife was first cousin to the Queen, and Chief Lady of the Bed-Chamber. Lettice Knollys was the wife of Lord Hereford, who was in poor circumstances. (Cipher reveals he was son of Queen Elizabeth and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.) In the Essex genealogical register of the 16th century Robert is not entered as the eldest son until after the Earldom of Essex had been conferred on his reputed father, Lord Hereford. Then, and not till then, "was he put forward as the legitimate son of the Essex couple." (D. von Kunow, p. 17) Sir Henry Wotton records that "the Earl (of Essex) had but a poor conceit of him and preferred his second son, Walter."
1568 Persecution of Protestants in the Netherlands: Holy Office condemned every man, woman and child in the Netherlands to the scaffold.
1569 A passage from the Duke of Norfolk's Confession incidentally tells of a child in the Queen's Private Apartments: "When the Court was at Guildford, I went unaware into the Queen's Privy Chamber, and found Her Majesty sitting on the threshold of the door listening with one ear to a little child who was singing and playing on the lute to her, and with the other to Leicester who was kneeling by her side. Leicester rose and the Queen continued listening to the child." (Strickland, p. 265.) Francis would have been about 9 years old at the time the Duke is referring to.
1570 A Norfolk gentleman named Marsham is condemned to lose his ears for saying "My Lord of Leicester hath two children by the Queen."
1571 A statute is passed by Parliament at the behest of the Queen which makes it a penal offense to speak of any successor to the crown save her "natural issue" (she rejects the term "legal" heirs. This is an indication that she was not closing the doors to the possible succession of Francis or Essex.)
With the passage of this act P. Woodward states in Tudor Problems, that "... after many years of intimacy, the interests of their own preservation warranted that they should part company. Elizabeth's statement to her Council in 1571 that she was 'free to marry' points to a mutual understanding that they should go their respective ways." (She had chosen to release herself.)
Shortly afterwards, Leicester, who had apparently taken the Queen at her word, secretly gave a formal pledge to Lady Sheffield and secretly married her two days before the birth of a son, who had the greatest difficulty in proving his legitimacy. This son became Leicester's heir.
Queen gives Manor of Marks Hall near Braintree in Essex to Walter Hereford, Essex' reputed foster father.
1572 St. Bartholomew's massacre -- Catherine de Medici had Protestants (her daughter's wedding guests) murdered by Catholics.
Elizabeth creates Lord Hereford Earl of Essex and Knight of the Garter.
1573 The Queen visits Sir Nicholas Bacon's new home in Gorhambury, which was completed in 1568 (she had visited it on completion, and in the previous year, 1572) and is royally entertained by Sir Nicholas. In March 1572/3 the Queen once more visited Gorhambury. The following month, Francis Bacon was sent to Trinity College, Cambridge.
April -- (10 June, Du Maurier) Francis enters Trinity college, Cambridge. 12 years old. Studies all the sciences then taught.
While in Cambridge, Francis was said to be dissatisfied with the methods of education then practiced, was devising a means for improving them. Acquired a knowledge of Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, and French.
The Queen sends Lord Hereford (now first Earl of Essex) to Ireland to recover a barony there. She loans Walter Hereford 10,000. He (elder Essex) writes to Burleigh offering him the responsibility for the "direction, education and marriage of eldest son, Robert." Thus becoming a ward, Essex will get to be at court.
1574 30 March -- Queen and Lord Hereford correspondence. Something going on under the surface. She refers to "previous letters, the contents whereof, assure yourself, our eyes and the fire only have been privy." She creates him a knight of the garter then sends him to Ireland (as though anxious to get him out of the way).
1575 Francis leaves Cambridge (before his birthday) where he had acquired a reputation for precocious learning. An outbreak of the plague may have something to do with his returning home. But he did not return. Must have been a happy time until September 1576
Eliz apparently unaware of the Secret Marriage with Lady Sheffield gave Leicester 50,000 pounds and he responded by giving her a magnificent entertainment at Kenilworth Castle.
Then, he privately married one of the queen's cousins -- Lettice, the widow of Walter, Earl of Essex. He was afterwards pressed into a more formal ceremony in the presence of her father, Sir Francis Knollys. When the Queen heard of the marriage, a year later "she was for putting him in the Tower." Eventually he was ordered to remain a prisoner at Greenwich Castle, and his wife was forbidden to attend Court.
1576-1612 Dates for Roger Manners 5th Earl of Rutland, another "Shake-speare" candidate.
1576 Historie of Errors -- play performed before the Queen (by Laneham)
21 November Francis and Anthony Bacon were admitted at Gray's Inn. But Francis appears to have spent a good deal of his time at the Court until September, when Francis was sent abroad, "Direct from Her Majesty's Royal Hand," as a result of a Bolt from the Blue: Inciting Incident -- (According to Cipher) The Queen reveals to Francis that he is her son. Makes him swear never to write or speak, or print secrets under his own name. Knowledge that he is unacknowledged "Prince of Wales" catapults him into a premature adulthood.
September 11 -- Sent to Paris by Queen. Arrives at Calais. Travels with the ambassador, Sir Amyas Paulet, to Paris, on the great ship Dreadnought .
In France Francis mingled with the most exalted statesmen and wits of the period, acquired knowledge of foreign courts and politics. For the next three years he visited Blois, Poictiers, Tours, also Italy and Spain.
His muse is Pallas Athena. He was known to be a poet in France. Ronsard's group, Pleiade.
Lord Hereford (first Earl of Essex) returns from Ireland unexpectedly and apparently makes things awkward by his demands and his actions. He is peremptorily ordered back to Ireland in July.
September, Lord Hereford dies suddenly in Ireland; it is said through poison, and that the Earl of Leicester had something to do with his death. (Was he threatening blackmail?)
Bacon conceives his "Theater Project."
Robert Devereux, fledgling Earl of Essex, age 10, lives with the Cecils at Theobalds. The first time he met the Queen, she leaned forward to give him a kiss. He, already fiercely independent, and not finding this aging, red-haired woman very appealing, turned his head aside and refused her kiss. The Queen was not amused.
W.S. at 13 apprenticed to a butcher.
1577 Garden of Eloquence by Sir Henry Peacham (One of Bacon's circle.)
Robert Devereux, the second Earl of Essex, the Queen's alleged son, is sent to Trinity College, Cambridge in January.
1576-1623 The English Language was made (developed) from almost barbaric crudeness to the highest pitch which any language has realized. Practically everything worth knowing was made available in English. These editions were not produced for profit. How was the cost provided?
1578 John Lyly -- Anatomy of Wit appeared in England. Bears curious resemblance to Francis' experience in France. Young man has a fling at love. Returns sadder but wiser.
Francis toured independently
Eliz. refuses to allow him to wed Marguerite de Valois.
Learns how cipher is used in diplomacy, secret service.
Negotiation of treaty.
Francis has portrait painted by the Queen's artist, Hillyard, who writes on the portrait: "Could I but paint his mind." Francis was 18 years old. (Was he in France or England when portrait was painted? (Dodd suggests he may have returned to England with dispatches.) (Note: the same artist also painted the Queen in a strikingly similar style. He also painted a portrait of Essex. There were no other youths painted by Hilyard for the Queen.
Earl of Leicester secretly marries young Robert's foster-mother, Lady (Hereford) Essex.
1579 Francis' dream: that Bacon's house was plastered over with black mortar
Recalled from France upon death of father, Feb 20. Arrives in England March 20.
Nicholas' will leaves him penniless, which is remarkable, since all other children were well provided for. (Could this be a mute indication that his expectations lay elsewhere?)
Begins career in law, which he studies "against the bent of his genius." He writes to Lord and Lady Burleigh pointing out how incongruous it is for a person in his position to be employed in studying the common law. He says: "I do not understand how anyone well off or friended should be put to the study of the common law instead of studies of greater delight." Had Francis been the real son of a lawyer, it would have been impossible for him to feel it beneath him to study common law. As a Prince, though concealed, hoping he would be publicly called to the Succession of the English Throne, he would naturally feel such drudgery to be a little beneath him. To ease his discontent, Burleigh procures him a dispensation from his compulsory attendance of "keeping Commons." This meant that he declined to take his meals with the law students, barristers. Even six years later (1586) an order was again specially made, permitting him to take his meals at the Reader's or Master's table, although not entitled by seniority. He passed over the heads of barristers and ancients, care having to be taken to reserve their rights to pension in view of his supercession.
Resides at Gray's Inn.
Celestial visitation -- a clairaudient experience. "The glory of God is to conceal a thing, but the glory of a King is to find it out." "A flame of fire which fills all the room and obscures our eyes with its celestial glory -- heavenly voice. Follow the example of God. Put away popular applause. Compose a history of thy times and fold it into enigmatical writings and cunning mixtures of the theatre mingled as the colors in a painters shell and it will in due course of time be found."
His plan: 1) catalogue and systematize "all the world's knowledge." (in English Language) 2) appear as model son to the Queen. Aid and support the administration of her realm. Give good advice. Enhance her image. Stay hidden behind the scenes. 3) Commit the true story to several ciphers. Live a secret (double) concealed life.
The "A"-"A" device first appears.
Mother resides at Gorhambury, St. Albans.
The Shepherd's Calendar - "Spenser" (the first appearance of the Cipher, signed E.K., for "England's King."
Leicester marries Lettice Knollys in secret. Queen not pleased when she finds out.
1579-89 Nine early books, none of them under Francis' name, including Treatise: Anatomy of Melancholy. (Burton.)
1579-80 Abundant proof, according to Dodd, that Francis had begun the establishment of secret societies, and that Anthony was his agent.
Anthony leaves for France.
Francis Bacon writes Four Letters to Lord Burleigh, Secretary of State, and Lady Burleigh, in which he presses them to recommend his "suit" to the Queen, while thanking them for, apparently, a promised monetary allowance, and other promises for the future. The first letter was dated 11 July, 1580
15 October he writes his uncle, Lord Burleigh, to "present his more than humble thanks to the Queen for her princely liberality."
18 October. "This last one seems to be one carefully written for submission to the Queen with a view to appease her anger which his importunity had aroused." says P. Woodward. [Dodd believes that the First Canto (of sonnets) had been sent to the Queen, and this letter was sent afterwards for fear she resented the Sonnets which she would understand only too well.] He is undoubtedly pressing for recognition as the Queen's Son and Heir in the Succession. That is the "suit" which historians are at a loss to explain. The 1580 letters are signed "B.Fra.", which signature is often used in Initial Capitals of his concealed works. The "suit" to Burghley, via Lady Burghley, his aunt was denied. It was pursued 18 months.
The letters which passed between Prof. Gabriel Harvey and "Immerito," which refer to "Immerito" as "a certain worshipful gentleman," and to "Right Worshipful and Thrice-Venerable Masters," indicate the establishment of Modern Freemasonry. Francis Bacon's correspondence indicates he was the Chief of a very busy group of literary workers at Gray's Inn and Twickenham Lodge, works being published anonymously and openly by the Secret Literary Society, the Rosicrosse.
Plas Mawr, Conway built. A fine Tudor building. Eliz and Leicester stayed there often. The bedrooms of the Queen and Leicester are in close proximity, and can both be approached by a private door, with access to the Queen's Sitting Room.. these two bedrooms are entirely apart from the rest of the building, being absolutely a wing on its own. (Booklet and photo-cards to be obtained from C.G. Dyall, Curator, The Royal Academy of Art, Plas Mawr, Conway, N. Wales.
1580-81-82? Cypher reveals: ("Ere I was 21") Queen finds out he wrote Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . (And then I was lost.) She throws it into the fire.
When he attained 21, it was decided to send him for a year's travel abroad, according to the practice of the period for Princes and Noblemen's sons. There are records which show that Lord Burleigh was interested in the best routes he had to travel.
Evidence that F.B. was on continent: To observe. He was in Italy, Spain, Germany, Denmark. Sir Thomas Bodley paid the bill. He also wrote notes on the State of Christendom: Austria, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Florence, Venice, Mantua, Genoa, Savoy. (These papers discovered and published after his death)
1581 Essex receives M.A. degree at age 14. Leaves Cambridge.
1582 Made outer barrister at Gray's Inn. Resides at the Inns of Court as a gentleman pensioner of the Queen. He had no money of his own. "From the age of twenty, except for his allowance from the Queen, he had nothing to live on. The Bacon family had no responsibility and he was entirely a Pensioner on the Queen's Bounty." (Woodward.)
Nov 28 -- W.S.(William Shaxpur) marries Anne Hathaway, an illiterate (7 years older) under disreputable circumstances.
1583 William Stanley, sixth Earl of Derby visited Navarre, where Love's Labors Lost took place. (Those who support his candidacy as author of Shakespeare plays cite this fact. But do they know that the names of several characters in Love's Labours Lost also appear on Anthony Bacon's passport now in the British Museum?)
Robert, Earl of Essex, resides at Langley, Pembrokeshire, and returns to Court under pressure by the Earl of Leicester.
Queen had her own group of players.
May 26 -- W.Shaksper daughter Susanna born.
Brotherhoods had been established, at least by this date.
The Birth of Merlin masque by Francis.
1584 Tempus Partus Maximus Francis writes a short Latin Tractate, "The Most Masculine Birth of Time," which is a covert hint that he has created a Masculine Brotherhood, the Modern Order of Freemasonry. Greatest (Masculine) Birth of Time, is a forerunner of Advancement of Learning
Leycester's Commonwealth, appears, printed in Antwerp. Copies filtered into England. A very circumstantial account is given of the lascivious nature of Leicester. His amours with various women are narrated at length, his characteristics being "dissimulation, hypocrisy, adultery, falsehood and what not."
Leicester formed an Association of the nobility and gentry of England, sworn to defend Elizabeth's person against the Catholic Party's new policy ... the assassination of the Queen. Dudley was the leading Protestant Puritan at E's Court, and the greatest businessman of his time, a man of great energy and ability. He owned mines, mills, and great forests. He could export woolens and held the monopoly of all sweet wines. He was always ready to contribute large sums of money to advance the fortunes of England. He believed that England could defeat Spain, He was the patron of the Drama, he gave Oxford University its first printing press, and was its chancellor.Yet he was reputed to be "brainless."
Francis is elected M.P. for Melcome in Dorsetshire, also for the pocket borough of Catton, belonging to Lord Burleigh. A penniless student at twenty-four could only have got into Parliament through powerful influence.
Essex now living at court. At age 14 has obtained his M.A. degree.
Essex has a very serious altercation with the Queen respecting Sir Walter Raleigh (35), Captain of the Guard, accusing her of being under his control and influence. (Makes one think that Essex must have known his identity, and was jealous of anyone coming between them.)
1585 Francis writes to Walshingham his enigmatical letter to "put him in remembrance" of his "poor suit," which is really a request to the Queen, through her Ministers, whether she intends formally to recognize him as her Heir and Successor to the Throne. Note: Leicester is out of favor with the Queen at this time, and Francis wonders whether this endangered his prospects of Recognition.
Francis addresses a long letter of caution to the Queen with reference to the attempts to poison her. t begins with a curious note, which is a virtual statement that he is one of the Queen's natural children... "Care, one of the Natural and True-bred Children of Unfeigned Affection, awaked with these late wicked and barbarous attempts, would needs exercise my pen to your Sacred Majesty."
Queen commissions F to write The Art of Poetry, which would give her opportunity to publish her own verses. Leicester takes Essex (his "stepson" with him on an expedition to Holland. He took part in battle Zutphen. Upon his return, Essex was constantly at court and on best terms with the Queen. She showed him considerable fondness.
W.S. children Hamnet and Judith born. (Twins?)
1586-87 Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots for treason.
Bacon M.P. for Taunton
Leicester had command of the English operations in the Low Countries.
Leicester resigned his post of master of Horse, and Robert Essex was given the post at 1500 pounds per annum. Essex is in constant residence at the Court. He would then be twenty and the Queen fifty-four. Their relationship appears to be that of Mother and Son. Bagot wrote this year: "When she is alone, there is nobody near her but my Lord of Essex, and at night my Lord is at cards of some game or other with her."
Bacon made a bencher, one of the inner members who acts as governor to the Inn W.S. flees on foot to London to escape prosecution for stealing deer and rabbits. (Left with a travelling company of players?) Finds employment in Burbage's stable. Factotum.
Hamlet, an anonymous play then on stage (but see 1581)
Love's Labours Lost -- shows court life of Navarre (ethical brotherhood)
1587 Assists in presenting at Gray's Inn Revels an anonymous play The Tragedy of Arthur, a reminiscence of King John, containing many extracts found in his notebook, the Promus (With The Promus alone might a brief be made for the plaintiff)
Can speculate that his Order of the Knights of the Helmet was forming with the University wits around this time?
Shake-speare a mature poet by this time (Sweet)
1588 The Spanish Armada appears in the English Channel, 20th July. The Earl of Leicester is made Lord Lieutenant of England and Ireland. He is invested with greater power than any Sovereign had even ventured to bestow upon any subject.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada -- in roaring tempest. Beached on Goodwin Sands.
Leicester dies suddenly on the 4th September. Queen Elizabeth immediately seized all his estates (on the plea of money lent), and put them up for auction. The Queen and Leicester acted as though she honestly regarded herself as his lawful wife by a private marriage, which she could not openly admit for State reasons. That she loved him, and him alone, to the very end, is beyond dispute. And many years after his death, when opening a private drawer in the presence of an intimate, she said, holding a piece of paper in her hand, "His last letter."
By his will he left Leicester House, also a George and Garter, to the Earl of Essex in the hope he would wear it shortly. The Earl of Essex is appointed a Knight of the Garter, and was made General of Horse.
After Leicester's death, (and even before, see 1587) Essex acts as though he knew the secret of his birth.
Essex and Queen have many temper flare-ups. He never knew where to draw the line between private and public relationship with the queen. Robert the "son" destroyed Essex the "subject". She tried to tame him like a wild horse. Pattern is established of his insubordination, her anger, then later forgiveness. Pattern often repeats.
Francis Bacon is elected M.P. for Liverpool, and is sworn Queen's Counsel Extraordinary. In Parliament, Writes Advertisement Touching the Controversies of the Church. Is given reversion of clerkship in Star Chamber yielding no immediate salary (he would have to wait until 1609 for it!)
Shakspere "a servitor" in the company of Burbage is mentioned in a bill of complaint against John Lambert of Stratford.
1589 February 4: The New Parliament meets and Francis takes a prominent part in its deliberations, serving on the most important committees, arranging between the Commons and the Queen the terms on which double subsidies were to be granted.
Henry III, king of France assassinated by Clement.
1590 Francis publishes works on shorthand. P. Woodward believes that Francis Bacon was putting shorthand into practice, and had many assistants working for him.
Essex receives a handsome revenue of sweet wines. (a monopoly)
October - Henry IV of France writes to Robert Essex personally, asking him to use his influence with the Queen for English assistance against Spain, as though he had some private Knowledge, of his actual position at Court ...
Essex secretly married to Sir Philip Sidney's widow. When the marriage came to the Queen's knowledge "her anger knew no bounds against Essex, not merely because he took a wife without asking her consent, but for marrying, as she said, below his degree." (Devereux.) His wife was the daughter of Sir Francis Walshigham, quite his equal in every respect unless the Queen regarded him as a Tudor Prince of the Blood Royal. It was not jealousy, but anger for marrying below his degree.
1591 Queen objects to Essex going to assist Henry IV. He goes anyway. Queen orders his return. He refuses. She vows to make him an example (insubordination) Later she forgave him, allows him to be present at siege of Rouen, but must remain out of harm's way.
Essex challenges Villiers, Governor of Rouen to a mortal duel. The Queen got the Council to write to him that, owing to his position, he had not right to engage in it."
Queen appoints Bacon to be confidential advisor to the Earl of Essex, along with Anthony. The thrust of Francis' advice is always, "Win the Queen. Win the Queen."
Shake-speare had no peer in dramatic writing by this date (Sweet)
1591-96 Complaints (Colin Clout) and Faerie Queene (E. Spenser)
1592-96 Essex at the pinnacle of his popular reputation and fortunes. The Queen became envious and jealous of his popularity. (Woodward, p. 13)
1592 Francis Bacon writes a letter to Lord Burleigh, Secretary of State, which is a veiled renunciation of his claims as the eldest of the Tudors to the English Throne. He is getting older: "I wax somewhat ancient. One and thirty years is a great deal of sand in the hour glass. . . I ever bear in mind -- in some middle place that I could discharge -- to serve Her Majesty. . . I confess that I have as vast contemplative ends as I have moderate Civil ends, for I have taken all knowledge to be my province. . . This Philanthropia is so fixed my mind as it cannot be removed. If your Lordship shall find, nor or at any time, that I do seek or affect any place . . . nearer to your Lordship . . . say, then, that I am a most dishonest man. . ." The writer thus lets it be known he no longer wants to rule over a Material Kingdom.
He is pressed with debts (through printing anonymous publications) and disappointed at the rejection of his "poor suit." (which he had begun in 1580!) He says he will become "a sorry Bookmaker" and throw up the legal profession. He appears quite resigned to live the life of a commoner, instead of a Prince.
Turning Point: This is the year that F.B. relinquishes his "suit" claim to the throne in favor of Essex. (Letter to Burleigh, which in effect, clears the way for Essex to succeed Eliz. -- if he plays his cards right.) Believes it is best for the kingdom: "Chose Essex as fittest instrument to do good to the state." He no longer seeks to rule over an earthly kingdom, but over a universal one. "To thine own self be true." This is the vow / resignation which allowed him to occupy the chair of Apollo. Residing at Gray's Inn with intervals at Gorhambury and Twickenham.
Francis writes to Fulke Greville: "My matter is an endless question. . . I dare not go further. . . Her Majesty had by set speech more than once assured me of her intention to call me to her Service; which I could not understand but of the place I had been named to. . "I have a hard condition: to stand so that whatever service I do to Her Majesty, shall be thought to be lime-twigs and fetches to place myself. I have been like a piece of stuff bespoken in the shop: And if Her Majesty will not take me, it may be the selling by parcels will be the more gainful. For to be as I told you, like a child following a bird, which when he is nearest flyeth away and lighteth a little before, and then the child after it again, and so ad infinitum. I am weary of it, as also of wearying my good friends. Yet indeed I do confess the first love will not be easily cast off." (Dodd remarks that this image is like Sonnet CXLIII, which he has numbered 19)
At Twickenham Park, Francis Bacon employs a staff and with him associate some of lawyer friends, Messrs. Dunch, Cecil, Gosnald, Field, etc.
The first Shakespeare plays, Henry VI, Part I, II, III, appear anonymously.
Queen visits him at Twickenham and he presents her with a sonnet.
Anthony Bacon returns from abroad 1591-92.
Francis takes seat in Parliament for Middlesex. (Generally assumed that uncle Burghley was responsible for getting these posts for the Bacon nephews.)
Essex had stepped into Leicester's shoes. Took his political role as enterprising man of action (businessman), soldier, opposed to the Cecils, cautious statesmen.
Essex' extravagance leaves Bacon brothers' salaries unpaid. Francis contracts debts, is sued and imprisoned by a Jew. Anthony relieves him by mortgage on his property.
Shakspere's personal description is given by Greene (factotum) Greene wrote A Groatsworth of Wit.
Venus and Adonis is published with name William Shakespeare on the title page. Dedication to Bacon's friend, Southampton
In Parliament Francis espouses popular cause at displeasure of Burghley and the Queen. She was deeply incensed. On matter of subsidies he locked horns with the government, but also espoused other popular causes: adverse to corruptions, advocated free parliaments, declares publicly that laws were made to guard the rights of the commons, not to feed lawyers and should be made so as to be read and understood by all.
Leaves Gray's Inn (obliged by plague) takes refuge at Twickenham "not to play and read, but to pursue philosophy, and to discuss the laws of thought."
Shakspere's name appears in a list of actors in a Christmas play before the Queen.
1593 Francis Bacon is returned M.P. for Middlesex. He opposes the collection of a triple subsidy in one year (money bill) and incurs the intense displeasure of the Queen. He is denied access to Court, has his allowance cut off by the Queen, and is compelled to borrow money from his foster-brother Anthony Bacon, who had just returned from the continent.
Essex still resident at court. Francis assists Essex in his Foreign Office Affairs. Anthony and Francis are providing him with good information from the continent regarding trend of affairs and secret events. They are running a secret service.
Queen still angry with Francis for opposing her money bill.
Office of Attorney General vacant. Essex cannot procure it for Francis. The more he pressed her, the more she refused. Cecils convince Queen that Essex is attempting to usurp her kingly seat and to assert ascendancy over her.
With death of Marlowe, Francis must seek a new "mask" or "vizard." William Shakspere "secured" as pen name.
Up to this time Francis has apparently accomplished nothing -- 32 years old.
Takes a seat in parliament for Middlesex.
Essex exposes Lopez conspiracy. Plot to poison Queen via Dr. Lopez, Portuguese Jew allegedly hired by Spanish. (It may have been a false accusation.)
1594 Francis Bacon is still out of favour at Court and not appointed to any office. 19th April Francis goes to Greenwich, where the Court was being held, hoping the Queen would allow him to interview her. She would not see him.He begins to practise as a barrister, and pleads his first case in Court, there being a "good assemblage of justices who showed him extraordinary respect."
Robert Cecil advances to his father's position as Secretary of Treasury. (Cecils had a deep-laid scheme to make premiership hereditary in the House of Cecil.)
Coke becomes Attorney General
Globe Theatre built. Shake-speare plays performed only at Globe and Blackfriars. "Theatres attracted adventurers, vagabonds, paupers, ruffians, thieves, pimps, prostitutes, dirty, stormy, quarrelsome crowd." (Dodd)
In July he was still without permission to attend the Court. He borrows money, with the help of Anthony Bacon, for a journey he was about to take North.
In the Autumn, the allowance from the Queen is still not being paid.
During these years Essex was the idol of the populace, and the Queen could scarce bar his absence from her side." (says Mr. Devereux, Essex' biographer.)
Correspondence between Robert and Francis show they were very intimate and affectionate towards each other.
Previous Christmas Masque at Gray's Inn had proven a failure. Bacon is solicited for aid "in recovering its "lost honour."
Anthony is living in Bishopsgate, close to the Bull Inn, where plays were performed
Lady Bacon is greatly disturbed at the connection of Anthony and Francis with dramatic performances, "mummeries," she called them.
Lucrece is published. Dedicated to Bacon's friend, Southampton.
Francis is poor and sick, working for bread. Francis earned his first $$ as a lawyer this year. (33 years old.)
Essex, in debt to Bacons for salary, asks the Queen to appoint F. Solicitor General. She refuses.
The Queen forgives Essex, who entertains on the Queen's Accession Day. Bacon composes The Device of an Indian Prince for the occasion. Bacon writes the masque in which Philautia, Goddess of Self Love is Q. Eliz, the Alone Queen. Veiled plea for public acknowledgement on the part of Essex/Francis to let them take their true name, Tudor, so that she will not be the Alone Queen any more.
To Essex: "Law drinketh too much time -- dedicated to better purposes." "Law for ye merry tales."
December 5 -- Promus begun. It contains 1560 phrases, poetical expressions, quotations, and proverbs from various languages for use in literary composition.
1595 Francis unburdens himself in a letter to Fulke Greville, which denotes that he had a claim on the Queen -- a suit for recognition, which he had been promised would receive attention -- but which was to be shelved in favour of his younger brother Essex. "My Matter must be an appendix to my Lord of Essex Suit...I have a hard condition... To be like a child, following a bird, which when he is nearest flyeth away and lighteth a little before, and then the child after it again, and so ad infinitum. I am weary of it."
Francis is sent for to the Court but he was not seen by the Queen, but, according to a letter sent to Anthony Bacon, he again appears to have received a small allowance from the Queen.
By the 17th November, better relations with the Queen are established. It signals the end of the Queen's long displeasure with Francis begun in 1592. (He never apologized for his behavior in Parliament. He was no sycophant.)
Twickenham Park granted to Francis for 21 years by the Queen when Edward Bacon's lease expired. (87 acres of enclosed park, gardens, orchards, lanes, streams and a lake. Ideal and much-loved retreat.)
The Earl of Essex again tries to obtain a legal post for him, and fails. He thereupon gives Francis an estate worth 1800 pounds. (Essex conveys to him land adjoining Twickenham.)
Francis writes to Essex 1595-96 "Consider first, whether I have not reason to think your fortune comprehendeth mine." But he also warns Robert that his own personal duty as a concealed son and a public citizen, lay first to the Queen and to the State, and that even their secret brotherhood would not permit him to join in or defend any rash act. "I see I must be your homager . . . but you know the manner of doing homage in law? Always with a saving of his faith to the King. I can be no more yours than I was..."
Fleming becomes Solicitor General (the post Essex wanted for Francis?)
July 14 - Queen creates a new office for Francis -- he becomes her personal advisor: "counsel learned in the law" with a retainer for his services. Important: he need not follow profession of a lawyer, financial provision was being made for him.
January 3 -- Entertainment at Gray's Inn The Order of the Helmet., or The Prince of Purpoolii. An extraordinary entertainment at Gray's Inn. Play called Comedy of Errors was presented as part of festivities.
Love's Labours Won (All's Well...) contains the phrase "law for ye merry tales," The play impressed Lord Campbell by the author's accurate knowledge of law.
W.S. listed on subsidies tax list in St. Helens, Bishopsgate.
1596 The year begins with improved relations with the Queen for Francis. He writes a letter of advice to Robert Essex, saying that his popularity might give offence to the Queen.
Essex a popular favorite -- plays to crowd on horseback. (Master of Horse) He was in command of a fleet that sailed to attack Cadiz. Brilliant victory. Spanish fleet scattered. Immediate threat of invasion smashed. Essex wanted to follow up with attack on Spanish fleet on its way home from India. Queen would not allow. In Essex' absence, Lord Cobham and Raleigh's friends publish an account giving Raleigh all the credit for the victory at Cadiz. They make mischief between the Queen and Essex. The populace takes his side, and this rekindles the Queen's jealousy as an "absolute Princess." Cecil is openly hostile to Essex, who, tired and beaten, falls ill.
Succession question still paramount
Queen has fears of coup d etat -- military dictatorship. Francis counsels E to concentrate on Civil matters. Essex rejects wiser counsels, begins to "gang his ain gait."
1596-1658 Descartes born
1596-97 Francis Bacon publishes his Essays along with Maxims of the Law, Colours of Good and Evil and the Meditationes Sacrae in his own name. However in many of his publications Francis Bacon kept his name from the Title pages because he had learned a lesson from what befell Sir Nicholas Bacon, whose known connection with the publishing of a book was the means of excluding him from the Privy Council."
The Lord Chamberlain's Company before the Queen. She pays Burbage, Shakspere, and Kempe the sum of twenty pounds.
W.S. returned as defaulter in subsidy tax in St. Helens.
Aug 11 -- W.S. son, Hamnet dies.
The Earl of Essex a popular hero after the English retake Calais.
Discontinuance of privateness between Queen and Essex.
1597 M.P. for Southampton.
January 30 -- Francis Speaks in Parliament against enclosures.
Essex is anxious to retire to Wales but the Queen refuses to let him go. In June he is pushed into taking charge of another naval expedition against Spain. Essex to share command with Raleigh and Howard. didn't want to share command, especially with Raleigh. He sulked. He was later put in command of the expedition, and it failed. Queen displeased, and gives Howard precedence at court.
Essex falls ill. "Full fourteen days hath my Lord of Essex kept his chamber. Her Majesty has, I heard, resolved to break him of his will and pull down his great heart; who found it a thing impossible. He says he holds it from his mother's side. " (R. White, 25 February, 1597) The Queen visits him. And later in December, the Queen mollifies Essex, creating him Earl Marshall of England which restores his precedence. (However, it is one of the offices his brother had warned him against accepting.)
Francis writes to T. Matthews of "Works of his Recreation" and that "Tragedies and Comedies are made of one Alphabet."
Essays, dedicated to Anthony are published. His first open work.
Francis withdraws suit (via Essex) for marriage to Lady Hatton's daughter.
W.S. lives near "Bear Garden, Southwark."
W.S. Buys New Place, Stratford. 60 pounds.
W.S. is taxed at St. Helens.
W.S. is returned as householder in Chapel Street, Stratford, and as owner of ten quarters of corn.
Lord Mayor of London describes theatres as "ordinary places for vagrant persons, masterless men, thieves, horse stealers, whoremongers, cozeners, coney-catchers, contrivers of treason and other idle and dangerous persons."
1598 Political Relations with Ireland deteriorate Queen does not choose Essex' candidate for Lord Lieutenant (deputy) of Ireland. He becomes angry, overbears her opinion and advances his own. Famous scene wherein he turns his back on her, she boxes his ears. In retaliation, the Earl put his hand on his sword, and swore he would not take such an insult from her father, Henry VIII. "Go and be hanged," said the Queen. The pride of each had been wounded to the quick before the Courtiers. Essex was not received again at Court until November.
Richard II published (Shakespeare Quarto. More plays were added with each edition, first 10, then 38, then 58.)
Bacon embarrassed by the Queen's anger because of a pamphlet by Hayward based upon the play of Richard II.
Love's Labours Lost published as first drama bearing name "William Shake-speare" satires contemporary life in many ranks of society.
He proffers Burghley a masque at Gray's Inn.
Burghley dies; is succeeded by his son, Sir Robert Cecil, the hunchback.
May - "It happened that Her Majesty had a purpose to dine at Twickenham Park at which time I had prepared a sonnet, directly tending, and alluding to draw on Her Majesty's reconcilement to my lord." (of Essex)
W.Shaksper supposed to have played in Jonson's "Every Man in his Humour;" "supposed" part Old Knowell.
Reference to W.S. by Francis Meres "As the soul of Euphorbus was thought to live in Pythagoras, so the sweete wittie soul of Ovid lives in mellifluous and honey-tongued Shakespeare (witness his Venus and Adonis, his Lucrece, his sugared sonnets among his private friends.
W.S. again taxed in St. Helens.
W.S. bought stone to repair his house.
W.S. is written to by friends about buying some odd yardland at Shottery and loans of money. (It is certain [says Phillipps]... that his (referring to W.S.) thoughts were not at this time absorbed by literature, or the stage. So far from this being the case, there are good reasons for concluding that they were largely occupied with matters relating to pecuniary affairs. He was then considering the advisability of purchasing an "odd yard land or other" in the neighborhood.
1599 The Cecils trick Essex into accepting position of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He privately negotiates a condition to be released from various debts due to the Crown. On 29th March Essex was placed in command of an expedition to subdue Ireland. It was his downfall. While he was in Ireland, his enemies got the upper hand. The jealousy of the Queen was fomented by his enemies at the Court owing to his masterful conduct of the campaign, and his free appointments to knighthood in the field. This angers the Queen for it is her prerogative. He does things "his way."
Irish campaign a failure. Essex' errors in Ireland cost the Queen 300,000 pounds. Nothing to show for it. Guerilla warfare. No definitive battle.
Essex accused of aiming to make himself King of Ireland with the aid of Tyrone, and/or aspiring to the throne of England.Julius Caesar performed this year. Shows the results of ill-fated attempt to depose the king.
Essex deemed it prudent to return without waiting for the Queen's instructions. His enemies induced the Queen to believe that his return was intended as a part of a planned attack upon the Throne.
Spenser dies, but Shepheardes Calender won't be attributed to him for another 12 years (1611).
Bacon is busy with his literary work and a scriptorium which he and Anthony are carrying on.
Employs Ben Jonson and others writing for it.
B. Jonson's Every Man Out of his Humor shows uneducated rustic purchasing a crest: Boar without a head, rampant.
W.S. fraudulently obtains confirmation of coat of arms, formerly applied for by his father, which causes protest to be made to the Herald-at-Arms, and excites ridicule among the wits and writers of the metropolis.
Essex returns from Ireland -- Queen displeased.
Francis drawn closer to Queen over the Essex affair. (She allegedly gives Francis a ring to give to Essex to use if he ever asks for the favor of a pardon.)
Queen helps Francis buy the Gorhambury house from Anthony.
Francis persuaded Q to set up disciplinary tribunal.
Essex was made a prisoner at York House. He falls ill. The Queen sends him broth and goes to see him privately. "The popular voice was loud in his favour."
December 13 - Essex returns patents as Master of Ordnance, Master of Horse. Warrant to be removed to Tower. Queen refuses to Sign. Essex ill. She sends soup.
Bacon endeavors to placate the Queen. Drafts letters for Essex to that end.
Essex is returned to favor, gradually. F. B. puts himself at great peril to plead for him. Queen grows cold to him (F.B.)
Bacon writes the Queen about the condition of Lady Bacon, who is lapsing into insanity, a subject so well treated in "Hamlet" and "Lear"
W.S. recovers debt of seven pounds of John Clayton, London.
1600 At the disciplinary hearing, Essex received justice mixed with mercy, but
Queen feels Essex is not sufficiently contrite.
Queen withdraws the monopoly of sweet wines, which puts Essex in dire straits financially.
The Earl is sentenced to be detained during Her Majesty's pleasure. Francis tries to bring about a reconcilement by writing a Sonnet. But the Queen has been definitely estranged. Nothing could stir the old, bitter woman, surrounded as she was by Essex' enemies, Cobham, Cecil, Raleigh. He appeals to the Queen repeatedly to permit him to see her in person. She refuses again and again. He gives himself up to despair since he cannot attend Court. In late Autumn Essex began holding hostile court. When he hears of the Queen's conditions he makes a remark variously quoted: "Her conditions are as crooked as her carcase." or "She is an old woman, crooked both in body and mind." These words of folly and ingratitude may be said to have sealed his fate, for if Elizabeth was anything, she was vain about her appearance, and jealous of her sceptre.
1601 At Essex' House, the Earl openly speaks of his wrongs, and plots a coup d'etat to obtain forcible control of the Queen, with the intention of requiring her to give up her present advisers and surround herself with his friends.
February 7 -- Richard II played (play about deposition of Richard II by Henry IV)
February 8 -- Essex leads a plot to kidnap the Queen in order to force her to dismiss his enemies from her court.
February 18-19 -- Arraigned for high treason.
Over and over again at his trial he repeats that he had no intention of doing harm to the Queen, but to rescue her from the enemies who had poisoned her mind against him.
"You sought to be Robert the First," shouted Coke at the trial, "but you shall be Robert the Last."
Francis pleaded for Essex privately, but she countered "When horses are unmanageable, it is necessary to tame them by stinting them in the quantity of their food."
By command of the Queen, Bacon required to be present at the trial, and was instrumental in securing a guilty verdict. He was sentenced to death. (Dodd says, Francis took a small part in the prosecution by the peremptory Order of the Queen. "There is little doubt that Francis never thought the sentence would be carried out. The Queen appears to have waited for a sign of contrition to be sent by Essex while confined in the Tower, a ring which was sent but was not delivered to the Queen.")
"The strong mind of Elizabeth was evidently shaken by the conflicting passions that assailed her at this agitating period and reason tottered." (Strickland, p. 669)
February 24 -- Essex is executed. The Queen had sent to countermand the Warrant for Execution, but Cecil had hurried the Earl to the block forthwith. He was executed in private... in a portion of the Tower reserved for Royal prisoners, when, as a traitor, he ought to have been hung and quartered at Tyburn.
ROBART TIDIR is carved by someone to commemorate the imprisonment and death of the unhappy son of Elizabeth Tudor (pronounced Tidir). "Tidir" is the Welsh form of "Tudor." The only State Prisoner to whom the inscription could apply was Robert, Earl of Essex. It must have been carved at the instigation of someone in authority and with the connivance of the Governor of the Tower.
The populace thereafter no longer received the Queen with cheers and her Ministers were insulted.
April 14 -- Practices and Treasons attempted and committed by Robert Late Earl of Essex and his Complices, Against Her Majesty and Her Kingdoms. Revised document went to press.
April 29 -- Francis writes a letter of complaint to Cecil asking him to restrain Sir Edward Coke, from personally villifying him. "He (Coke) said, 'I think scorn to stand upon terms of greatness towards you, you who are less than little; less than the least'; and other strange, light terms he gave me, with that insulting that cannot be expressed. Herewith stirred, yet I said no more than this: 'Mr. Attorney, do not depress me so far; for I have been your better, and may be again, when it please the Queen.'
"In the end he bade me not meddle with the Queen's business but with ine own; and that I was unsworn, etc. I told him, sworn or unsworn was all one to an honest man; and that I ever set my service first and myself second; and wished to God he would do the like. Then he said, it were good to clap a cap. utlegatum upon my back! To which I only said he could not; and that he was at fault, for he hunted upon an old scent. He gave me a number of disgraceful words besides; which I answered with silence, and showing that I was not moved with them."
Anthony Bacon dies.
May 7 -- Anthony Bacon buried at St. Olave's Hart Street, London.
Francis removes to Twickenham from his poor cell at Gray's Inn. (Exact date not known) Oct. 27, 1601 F.B. sent to House of Commons from Ipswitch & St. Albans, a "double return" (The burgesses knew that he was strait as a rush.) Was against monopolies. (They were O.K. if there were to protect the products of a man's wit.) He also defended charitable giving (freemasonry dependent upon charitable giving.) He was also against abuse of Weights and Measures; for repeal of superfluous laws. Spoke against the bill to curtail monopoly patents: "We ought not to meddle with her Majesty's Prerogative."
Francis writes Cecil to restrain Coke from villifying him. Coke said: "a capias ullagatum" should be pinned to his back (sign branding him as an outlaw)
1602 January, 41st birthday, Francis escaped to his retreat at Twickenham Park, creditors having been paid (from fines gotten from Essex affair)
Queen in decline after death of Essex. She lost her taste for dress, became thin and worn, and used to sit in the dark, sometimes with the shedding of tears to bewail Essex. In June Elizabeth confided to the French Ambassador, Count de Beaumont, that "she was aweary of life," and with sighs and tears alluded to the death of Essex. She said the "being aware of the impetuosity of his temper, she had warned him two years before...not to show such insolent contempt for her as he did on some occasions, but to take care not to touch her sceptre, lest she should be compelled to punish him according to the Laws of England and not according to her own... His neglect of this caution had caused his ruin."
Irish rebellion quelled. F.B. advocates leniency, toleration, a parliament in Ireland.
Hamlet first produced. (Entered Stationers' Register, 1602, printed 1603 and 1694.)
May 1 -- W.S. purchases 107 acres of land in Old Stratford.
Sept 28 -- W.S. purchases a cottage and garden near New Place; plants an orchard.
October -- Lady Bacon signed a deed in favour of her son -- surrendering to him her life interest in the manors and estates of Gorhambury.
1603 February -- Francis at Twickenham, with Richmond palace opposite. Letters to Cecil -- advice on how to rule Ireland. Queen's health failing
"All contemporary writers bear witness to the increased dejection of mind after visiting the Countess of Nottingham. It is said that the Countess... could not die in peace until she has revealed the truth about the detention of the Ring. After hearing that Robert had mutely asked for pardon, it is said that the Queen took the dying woman by the shoulders and shook her until she was breathless, flinging her back among the bed-pillows with terrible force. Her last words were "God may forgive you but I never can."
After this visit she was heard to say "I am tied, tied! And the case is altered with me. I am tied with a chain of iron about my neck," to her only confidential friend, Lord Admiral Howard. She waved the clerics from her chamber. How could she confess to them the real secret of her remorse?
March 24 -- Queen Elizabeth dies at Richmond Palace. Before her death she will not go to bed, but lays on floor on pillows. "If you were in the habit of seeing such things in your bed as I see, you would not press me to go there." Queen succeeded by James I.
Bacon writes to Cecil: "My ambitions will not rest only upon my pen."
Everybody about Court anxious to be brought to the notice of James, their living depending upon his favor. Bacon writes Sir John Davis, known as a poet, then on his way to meet the King, desiring him "to be good to concealed poets," and remember him with a good word when at Court.
Valerius Terminus published.
In Parliament speaks against abuses in weights and measures, and in favor of repealing superfluous laws.
Writes Certain Considerations Touching the Better Pacification of the Church of England
Beginning of Advancement of Learning
July 23 -- Francis is knighted by James I (in the rain) with 300 others at the King's Coronation ceremony.
Shake-speare strangely silent in this period (Sweet)
Feb 7 -- Troilus and Cressida at Stationer's Register. (First seen in print in 1623.) 1604 Writes Apology in Certain Imputations concerning the Late Earl of Essex
Mid August -- James concludes a treaty with Spain. Festivities. Prince Henry outraged by mauling of dogs in lion's cage.
August 25 -- is confirmed as member of the Learned Counsel. 60 pounds a year.
Southampton never forgives Francis for conviction of Essex. After the Essex affair, Southampton, a friend in his youth, always regarded Francis as an ungrateful, ungenerous enemy.
Francis again sent to Parliament in a "double return" (Ipswich and St. Albans.)
W.S. listed with other actors as licensed by the King.
W.S. supposedly acts in Jonson's play Sejanus
W.S. walks in procession from the Tower to Westminster with other actors and is allowed "four yards and a half of scarlet cloth to deck himself withal."
1605-06 Advocates the Union of England and Scotland
Time off Parliament for literary work.
Publishes two books of Advancement of Learning. (Note: For the first time the steps of scientific method are defined. He stresses the importance of seeking truth through reason rather than through revelation. The birth of scientific philosophy. Philosophy of Science.)
May 10, 1606 -- Francis marries Alice Barnham, daughter of Lady Packington at St. Marlebone Chapel. Pre Nuptial agreement. Marries for $$. He dresses all in purple, a color which has been forbidden to all but royalty. (He is 46 yrs., she is a few days shy of 14)
Robert, 3rd Earl of Essex married Frances Howard. He was 14, she was 13. (See Overbury affair in 1613)
Proposes to Lord Chancellor to write history of Great Britain.
Third edition of Essays published by Jaggard who printed the Shakespere Folio.
Lover's Complaint written about this time.
Volpone (The Fox) a black comedy by Ben Jonson.
Sonnet XII reveals thoughts on youth and age.
W.Shaksper buys moiety of the tithes of Old Stratford and adjoining parishes.
W.S. is bequeathed "a thirty shillinges peece in goold" by Phillips, a fellow actor..
The company to which W.S. belongs performs King Lear and Macbeth at Whitehall, Dec. 26, but his name is not mentioned.
W.S. is engaged in trade and agriculture.
1607 Countess of Southampton dies (Age shall not wither her..?)
25 June -- Bacon receives office of Solicitor-General -- finally after 13 years!
Has interest in founding colony in Virginia
Comparatively free from public business this year. Publication of King James Bible (Bacon may have been editor) W.S. daughter, Susanna, marries Dr. Hall at Stratford.
1608 A year of intense literary activity. Masculine Birth of Time; Cogitata et Visa. His ideas too advanced for academic approval. Bacon would have liked an academic appointment.
John Dee dies.
Twickenham sold. Francis Goes back to Gorhambury.
Is near nervous breakdown affecting his "imagination" seriously. Sir Tobie Matthews becomes a Roman Catholic, and is banished. Bacon secures suspension of decree, and subsequently, befriends him.
In correspondence with Matthews to whose critical judgment he submits his manuscripts, speaks of his scientific and historical works, and of "other writings" and "the little work of my recreation."
Commentarius Salutus: psychological studies for use in the Great Plays; definite indications that he has founded a Secret Brotherhood, etc.
Bacon Named treasurer of Gray's Inn.
Bacon Succeeds to the Clerkship of the Star Chamber with a revenue of about 2,000 pounds annually the gift of the late Queen Elizabeth.
W.S. recovers suit against John Adenbrook for seven pounds, four shillings, and, upon failure to pay, sues his bondsman.
W.S. godfather to son of William Walker, a neighbor.
W.S. purchases a twenty acres of pasture land of Combe.
W.S. company at the Blackfriars, but his name not mentioned.
1609 May 20 -- Sonnets entered at Stationers Hall (But first Sonnet Folio with 154 sonnets not published yet) -- Shake-speare with no first name given. (half of the Shakespeare Quartos use the hyphenated form) Dedicated to Bacon's lifelong friend, William Herbert. (W.H.) Sonnets generally assumed to have been written 1591-94. Dodd says that 1609 is the alleged date of the Sonnets. He gives the true date as 1625, "when the sonnets were compiled, printed and published privately to the Heads of Rosicrosse Masonry, who kept it as a Secret Book for many years.")
Francis, along with the Earls of Southampton,
Pembroke and Montgomery are founders of, and hold shares in, the
Newfoundland Company, and the Virginia Company. (Also active in
founding of the Carolinas)
They send Sir John Somers to West Indies; whose ship becomes wrecked in the Bermudas; the "still vexed Bermoothes." Bacon was privy to the private records of the ship. To this voyage is due "The Tempest," written soon after, which embodies so many of the results of Bacon's studies as to distinctly fix its authorship (cf. Bacon's Heat and Cold; Ebb and Flow of the Sea; the Biform Figure of Nature; exhibited in Ariel and Caliban; History of the Winds; the Sailing of Ships; Dense and Rare.)
De Sapientia Veterum -- story of 31 fables and myths of ancient Greece, giving his own interpretation; how they came into being, and how they influenced the thought and actions of man throughout the ages. He favored legends of Orpheus, Bacchus, and Prometheus. Also notable were Pan, Perseus and Dionysus, representing Nature, The State, and Passion respectively. These correspond to Comedies, Histories and Tragedies.
1610 Feb 9 -- Parliament in session. Issue of King's finances. Crown debt was over 400,000. Thorny question of prerogative and privilege: the sovereignty of the Crown and the liberty of the subject. He speaks and votes against the superior law officers of the Crown and strongly favours the redress of the Commons list of grievances.
May 14 -- Assassination of Henry IV of France (Henry of Navarre, Francis' friend). He was stabbed to death by a fanatic who jumped on the running-board of his coach. He died instantly.
King agreed to the withdrawal of certain privileges and prerogatives in exchange for an annual grant of 200,000. The Great Contract. It later failed
August -- Lady Anne Bacon dies. 82 years.
1610-12 Begins a history of Great Britain.
"Winter's Tale" contains Bacon's horticultural observations.
1611 The King James Bible is published, edited by F.B., with the title page illustrated by Bacon. (Another of his talents was sketching and intricate designing.)
Faerie Queene published. Interest frontispiece: The royal eagle of the Stuarts comes to alight upon the empty stump of the Tudor rose. Two blooms and two buds are shown. One associated with the headsman's axe (Essex). The buds are presumed to be children of Eliz. that did not live. And the one rose that would stand for Francis has its bloom turned away from view (hidden).
Essays -- another edition bears a dedication to Henry Prince of Wales.
Three Shakespeare plays produced. Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale, Tempest.
October 31 -- Tempest given before the King at Whitehall.
1612 Minerva Britannia by Henry Peacham. Frontispiece shows the hand of the poet behind the screen. Dedications to Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, are found with illustration performing symbolic Free-Mason ritual.
May 24 -- Lord Salisbury (Robert Cecil) died -- abdominal tumor. (Was Bacon's cousin.) Was not popular, ( corrupt)had steered the ship of state with a steady hand under two monarchs. While Secretary of State (it was only recently discovered) he had received secret payments from Spain in exchange for political favors .
November -- Prince Henry died of typhoid (tertian fever). Had overexerted himself entertaining guests come for wedding of his dear sister to the Elector Palatine of Bohemia.
Shakspere "retires" No new Shakespeare plays after this year.
1613 February 14 -- Marriage of Elizabeth, daughter of James to Elector Palatine, Frederick. Lavish wedding cost 50,000. THE MARRIAGE OF THE THAMES AND THE RHINE. A masque of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn, devised by Sir Francis Bacon
A musical comedy which Bacon presented at Gray's Inn in honor of the marriage of the Earl of Somerset, (Robert Carr, the King's favourite),which cost him two thousand pounds; refused to permit others to contribute, though Yelverton desired to subscribe five hundred pounds
W.S. still at Stratford engaged in petty trade according to Phillipps; attentive to business, growing in estate, purchasing farms, houses, and tithes in Stratford, bringing suits for small sums against various persons for malt delivered, money loaned, and the like; carrying on agricultural pursuits, and other kinds of traffic.
(It seems that he must have practically deserted the stage shortly after the purchase of his Stratford home.)
Another edition of Essays. Number now increased from 10 to 38. Of Marriage and the Single Life: "He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune; for they are impediments to great enterprises, wither of virtue or mischief. Certainly, the best works, and of greatest merit for the public, have proceeded from the unmarried or childless men."
April -- Overbury opposes the marriage of favorite Robert Carr (Somerset) and Frances Howard, young countess of Essex. She must divorce to wed him. Overbury is imprisoned and dies in the tower. Marriage proceeds (but it will be later found that Overbury was poisoned, and Somerset and his bride were responsible.)
June 29 -- the Globe Theater is burned; name of W.S. not mentioned.
Burbage is employed by Lord Rutland's steward to paint his master's cognizance, or "impresso," as it was called for a celebration at the castle of Belvoir. This was a coat of arms with coarse mantlings gaudily painted on canvas or boards to impress the gaping mob with the importance of their lord. Burbage W.S.'s former associate abiding in the vicinity procures his assistance, and W.S. is paid for his services forty-four shillings.
W.S. buys with three others house near Blackfriars in London (the gate-house) for one hundred and forty pounds; mortgages it back for sixty pounds; "was unpaid at his death."
26 October -- Appointed Attorney General. But he had to create a stir to do it, Coke appointed Chief Justice of King's bench, present Attorney General promoted to Chief Justice of Common pleas, and Francis would move to Attorney General. Had a fit of the stone -- panic when facing reality and his own future.
1614-15 King introduced to Sir George Villiers of Brooksby. (Old favourite, Robert Carr, Somerset, about to be eclipsed.)
Is returned Member of Parliament for Cambridge University, as well as Ipswich and St. Albans. A triple return is unprecedented. (Francis very popular with his constituency.)
Is engaged in the trial of Earl and Countess of Somerset for poisoning Sir Thomas Overbury.
Publication of the Fama Fraternitatis - 1614. the brotherhood of the Rosy Cross - forerunner of Freemasons.
W.S. shrewdly secures an agreement to indemnify him from loss in his old investment in the tithes. Is left 5 pounds by John A. Combe
W.S. conspires to acquire certain common land in the purlieus of Stratford by enclosure. Correspondence and notes in Greene's diary reveal the actor's interest in this unjust proceeding.
April 26 1615 W.S.a petitioner with others to Chancellor Egerton to compel Mathew Bacon to deliver up certain papers relative to title of the Blackfriars property.
1615 Villiers supplants Somerset as the Favourite and becomes acquainted with Francis Bacon.
1615 A great dispute between the Count of Chancery presided over by Francis Bacon, and the Court of King's Bench presided over by Sir Edward Coke, ending in Coke's disgrace.
1615 Bacon prepares two cases of prosecution for "treason" -- sedition was synonymous to treason in King's eyes.
1616 -- Overbury affair comes to trial -- prosecution of the Old Favourite and his wife for the murder of Overbury.
April 23 -- W.Shaksper dies in Stratford after an illness super induced by having "drank too hard," leaving will covering his minutest belongings. (Rumor that Ben Jonson poisoned him.) He dies "Unwept, unhonoured and unsung."
On the same day in Spain, Cervantes dies.
November -- Charles invested as Prince of Wales
The Continent stirred by a series of Rosicrucian pamphlets advocating an Ethical Brotherhood for the amelioration of the social, political and religious ills that were afflicting mankind.
1617 James travels to Scotland.
March 7 -- (March 3, says du Maurier) Bacon, now 57 is made Lord Keeper of the Seal (the same office held by Sir Nicholas B.) Bacon was left in almost complete charge of the government of England. (Regent in King's absence).
May 7 -- Francis took his seat in the Court of Chancery and delivered his first speech of office dressed in his purple satin! with many attendants. He was the defacto head of the government in the absence of the King. He vowed to clear the courts of cases. (As in the past, this advancement was followed by indisposition.)
Altercation between Edward Coke and Lady Hatton over their 2nd daughter Frances. Coke wanted her to marry John, brother of George Villiers. Mother and daughter wouldn't agree. She left in secret with her daughter. Coke demanded a warrant to fetch his daughter from the Council. Francis refused to sign, but eventually Secretary of State, Sir Ralph Winwood obliged and signed the warrant. Lady Hatton "fabricated" another suitor for her daughter.
According to Dodd, Coke and Lady Compton (Buckingham's mother) to be revenged on F.B. for supplanting him the Privy Council, etc.
King and his favourite Villiers not pleased with Francis' refusing to sign the warrant. He "lost points" with them.
When King returned, "Steenie," (George Villiers) became the all-powerful Duke of Buckingham.
Francis later managed to make amends with King and "Steenie" and the marriage finally took place
Raleigh released from the tower to make a voyage to South America
1618 January 7 -- (January 4, says du Maurier) Made Lord High Chancellor
July 12 -- received the title of Baron Verulam. Francis is now a peer.
October 28 -- Raleigh sentenced to death. (During his voyage to Orinoco he had offended the Spanish, who accused him of piracy. The King was negotiating for a marriage of his son with the Infanta. Raleigh's actions threatened this delicate alliance.
1619 January 12 -- Fire at Whitehall. Many Council papers lost. No lives lost.
March -- Queen died. Both King and Francis had a stone. Queen's body lay at Denmark House in the Strand for 2+ months
The Wisdom of the Ancients, first English edition.
King grants him a pension of 1200 per annum.
F.B. dismisses dishonest registrar from the Chancery named John Churchil.
Habsburg King Ferdinand (disliked by his subjects) had been deposed and his throne offered to James' son-in-law, a Protestant. The Elector Palatine set off for Prague. Ex-King Ferdinand's cousin (the German Emperor) declared war on Frederick, and the latter hoped for help from Great Britain. But the King held back, not wanting to offend the King of Spain who was an ally of the German Emperor. Francis favored support of Frederick and Elizabeth. The King temporized (procrastinated): was Frederick's accession legally valid?
1620-1626 Bacon now at the peak of his authority
Bacon at last felt safe to publish under his own name. Spring - Francis concerned with the Government of the country and sets forth his suggestions for better organization through various commissions (like our "departments" today) and establishment of routines. Nothing came of his suggestions. He was ahead of his time.
Publishes Novum Organum.
F.B. recommends a new parliament to be called. Writs go out. Churchil has furnished Coke with a "Black List" of discontented suitors in the Chancery which can be used in a charge of bribery and corruption.
1621 January -- His 60th birthday celebration -- at the pinnacle of his career.
27 January (New Year's) -- Created Viscount St. Albans. Splended ceremony of investiture at Theobalds, the former home of the Cecils, near Bacon's own home of Gorhambury in Hertfordshire. Once again wore purple, and King James did not object.
30 January New Parliament meets. Coke is leader of the Commons.
12 Feb: The Commons appoint committees to inquire into abuses and grievances amid great excitement.
14 March: Sir Lionel Cranfield denounces "abuses" in the Chancery Court and attacks Francis Bacon, saying he has two witnesses prepared to testify along with others compiled by J. Churchil. Francis Bacon writes to the Lords denying the charges and asks for the privileges of a High Court action. He announces his intention three times to defend himself.
16 April: The King sends for Francis Bacon and Commands him to desert his defence.
21 April -- offered to surrender the Seals. Refused the right to defend himself
24 April: The Prince of Wales announces to the Lords that he is the bearer of a "Submission" from the Lord Chancellor announcing his intention to desert his defence. The Lords demand that he pleads "Guilty" to each item, twenty-three cases in all. He sees the detailed charges for the first time in the evening.
30 April: The Chancellor returns Coke's "Black List" with the word "Guilty" written to each charge.
1 May -- Four Peers wait upon Francis Bacon to receive the Great Seal of England as he is too ill to go to the Bar of the House of Lords to surrender it. This event greatly parallels the scene from Henry VIII in which Woolsey surrenders his seals. In the evening he composes a wonderful prayer, found in his papers after his death, which, says Addison, sounds more like an angel than a man.
3 May -- sentenced by the House of Lords. Francis is too ill to attend. He is fined forty thousand pounds (fine was never paid) Sentenced to the Tower of London (spent four days there), May 31 - June 4.
Prohibited from holding office for the state
Prohibited from sitting in Parliament.
Prohibited from entering the city of London. Later exceptions were made, and he was permitted to return. He eventually took up his old lodging at Gay's Inn.
31 May -- Imprisoned in the Tower, writes a peremptory letter to the King and Buckingham demanding instant release. The necessary warrant was sent immediately to the Governor of the Tower.
The title of Chancellor was not taken from him
Later that same year, the King sent for him to ask his advice on the reform of the courts.
"I have done with all vanities."
1 Dec: A petition to the House of Lords: "I am old, weak, ruined, in want, a very subject of pity."
Argenis published in Latin in Paris, shortly after the death of the alleged author. An elaborate, allegorical history of 483 pages in large quarto, and is stated to have been edited by the dead author's friend Peireskius. Had Bacon managed to "conceal and yet reveal" his own personal history. Adventure novel. Nicopompous writes sonnets and little poems for other people that should redound to their fame. "For I bind not myself religiously to the writing of a true history, and take this liberty that the vices, and not the men, be struck."
Buckingham, at last obtains York House.
Decision to gather plays together for publication.
Timon of Athen
The History of Henry VII
Publishes Historia Ventorum and Historia Vitae et Mortis
December -- Tobie Matthew, his good friend returns from exile.
1623-24 January 20 -- Francis restored to King's favor. Still seeks a full pardon. Ben Jonson, the Poet Laureate, lives and works with Francis Bacon at Gorhambury.
Francis moves once more to Gray's Inn.
November -- The Great Shakespeare Folio of 1623 , edited by Ben Jonson, consisting of thirty-six plays, many never heard of before, is published. In Henry VIII Francis Bacon tells the story of his own fall and his parentage. It was never before written or played up to this time. (The Tempest has the name Francis Bacon entwined around the initial letter B from Boteswaine in the 1623 Folio)
Compare the bookband from Henry V (1608) with the folio version (1623). Fifteen years have passed, and the young, life-enjoying Bacon-Perseus is now the aging and overthrown Lord Chancellor. Also the Face of the Pan head has two different eyes, one weeping, one laughing, giving a strange, whimsical expression!
The Shakespeare bust is placed in the Stratford Church. Who placed it there?
Publishes De Augmentis Scientarium. In this treatise Bacon describes the method of ciphering used in the biliteral cipher. (Omnia per omnia.) This was the second mention of cipher in his works.
Jonson enters English translation of Argenis in the Stationers' Hall, but this translation was never published.
1624 Prepares for the press Sylva Sylvarum and The New Atlantis or The Land of the Rosicrosse (as indicated by the Brethren in later years).
July & August -- Publishes Apothegems -- dictated by memory from sickbed. Many betray a pungent sense of humor. Were these published because he owed the printer money?
Cryptomenytices appears in Germany by Gustavus Selenus-- Text appeared in Latin. The frontispiece is elaborate and telling. Upper picture: "Tempest" bordered by masks of tragedy. Middle left picture: Man wearing a tall hat giving a wallet with bank note and MSS to a peasant who holds a spear. He carries them to the Globe theatre, London. An eagle in the skies takes to his keeping Shakespeare's immortal works. Middle right picture: The Stratfordian, now rich, on his high horse goes hunting like a gentleman.
1625 Arranges into themes his private diary of sonnets; carefully disarranges them to destroy personal meanings; prints them by the private press of the Rosicrosse; and distributes the book to the heads of the Rosicrosse-Masons as a secret document in the Christmas New Year Lodges. This book was the "1609" Quarto entitled Shakespeare's Sonnets and was kept concealed as a Masonic secret until George Steevens, a Shakespearean Freemason, reprinted the book in 1766.
58 plays had been published under Shake-speare's name.
March 5 -- King became ill after hunting at Theobalds.
March 27 -- King James died. A great funeral is held. Son Charles I becomes king.
Summer -- plague and sickness raged in London. People swarmed out of the city, spreading the infection.
Francis writes his last will. Later revised and revoked his wife's part in the former will.
Final edition of the Essays.
First English translation of Argenis by Kingsmill Long.
1626 Feb 6 -- Parliament meets. Francis not included. He is still trying to procure a complete pardon from the King, which would enable him to hold office.
Before Easter, 1626, Francis Bacon had seen all the persons who had taken part in the plot against him struck down in ruin and disgrace. They fell like rotten apples, all save Buckingham. He alone was reserved to die under the hand of an avenger, to the joy of the nation. At the age of sixty six Francis Bacon "died to the world" but there is conjecture that he fled to the Continent and lived to a very old age.
The story goes that while experimenting with the effect of cold on the decay of meat he catches a cold and develops bronchitis.
April 9 (Easter Sunday morning) -- dies at Lord Arundel's house Highgate , 66 years old.
11 days after F.B. dies, his widow marries Sir. John Underhill, "the gentleman usher" of their household.
Dr. Peter Boener: (domestic apothecary and secretary) "I never saw him changed or disturbed towards anyone, he was ever the same in sorrow and in joy, a noteworthy example for everyone of all virtue, gentleness, peacefulness and patience."
When Bacon died, after 1626 the Elizabethan music faded out as though Bacon had been the leader of the national choir.
1626 Manes Verulamiani -- poems on the death of the Lord Chancellor printed as extracts in 1640. In 1730 printed in full form. (Found in 1896)
1627 New Atlantis and Sylva Sylvarum published together for 9 editions.
New Atlantis published a few months after he died with emblem "In time the hidden truth shall be revealed."
1629 Sir Robert le Greys and Thomas May published a second translation of Argenis and to this was added a Clavis or Key at the special command of Charles 1st to explain the characters in the Argenis, who were confessedly concealed under feigned names. The King was therefore fully aware of the truth of the Royal Secrets the book contained.
1631 Pierre Amboise -- early writer on Bacon, states Bacon was "born to the purple and brought up with the expectation of a great career. . . . " (Yet there had been a law in England for over 100 years that only royalty could wear purple.) "He saw himself destined one day to hold in his hand the helm of the kingdom."
1632 June 12 -- Bacon's estate finally settled. Judge sells the lands and estates to Lord Dunsmore for 6,000, on condition that he should pay Lady Underhill 530 pounds per year for her lifetime
1635 Three more of Bacon's books published by Rawley.
1636 A further edition of Argenis appeared with illustrations and a more elaborate Key to unlock the mystery of the allegory. The author of Argenis says his object was to wrap up some important historical truths in a tangle of imaginative fiction and that under certain fanciful names, well known persons and places are intended. The Key tells us who these fanciful names represent. Argenis is Margaret Valois; Hyanisbe Queen Elizabeth; Archombrotos or Hiempsall is her son who employs himself in writing Sonnets for various festive occasions at the Court. Nicopompus is the author, Mauretania is England, etc. The fable relates how the Queen was privately married "to a man of must eminent qualitie next to the King's, how she had a secret son, how she fought with Philip of Spain, how she posed as a Virgin to the world the better to discomfit her foreign enemies, how she forbade her son to marry Argenis, etc.
The first publication of any of Shake-speares Sonnets (apart from two published in 1599) was given to the open world in a book entitled Poems written by Wil. Shakespeare Gent. They were published by the Rosicrosse Literary Society, Francis Bacon's literary executors. The Poems continued to be printed in the "1640 form" (known as Benson's Medley because the "Unknown Sonnets" were printed in odd groups between well-known poems and songs of Shakespeare) and no one suspects that their impersonal captions masked a Biographical Diary of tempestuous emotions.
1641 Sir Thomas Meautys succeeds Francis as owner of Gorhambury. Thomas marries Anne Bacon, the daughter of Sir Nathaniel Bacon of Culford, Francis' nephew and well-known portrait painter of his day. (Meautys also erected a fine monument to his former friend and employer in St. Michael's church, St. Albans. date unknown)
1642 The Theatres around London closed by Parliament.
1644 Sermones Fideles, Leyden
1645 Theodor Haak, resident of the Palitinate, with friends at Oxford and Cambridge founded a society for carrying out the experiments of "Solomon's House (from Bacon's New Atlantis.) This was an Invisible Society out of which sprang the Royal Society under King Charles II, (see 1660).
Historia Vitae et Mortis published in Dilinger.
1653 Scripta Naturali et Universali -- Bacon shown on frontispiece next to Columbus and Copernicus.
1657 In Memory of Elizabeth by F. Bacon.(posthumous) Like Alexander and Julius Caesar, Eliz left no legitimate issue, but had natural children.
1660 Royal Society Founded under Charles II. (Science) (Francis Bacon acknowledged as primary influence).
Bacon also praised by Cowley as being the greatest poet of the day, after Milton.
1671 The last of the Biliteral cipher appears in print.
1679 Bishop Thomas Tenison -- early writer on Bacon, pointedly declared that F. Bacon led a concealed life. Tenison quotes Dr. Rawley: "He (Dr. Rawley) judged some papers, touching Matters of Estate (relating to Francis Bacon) to tread too near upon the Heels of Truth, and to the Times of the Persons concerned, to be published openly."
1693 Dowdall, researching Shaksper conversed with an old clerk who was then over 80 (he would have been born in 1610's and might have known Shaksper). He said Shaksper was a butcher's apprentice and ran away from his master to London.
1707 In Van der Werff's portrait of Elizabeth she is with 3 children. (Who was Van der Werff? He seemed to know the whole story, says J.O. Fuller)
1709 Rowe's Life of Shakespeare
1725 Alexander Pope's edition of Shakespeare
1730 Poems on the death of the Lord Chancellor printed in full form (Manes Verulamiani).
1726 Wilmot born at Warwick, a fellow of Trinity College
1740-41 Statue of "The Bard" placed in Westminster Abbey, same year anonymous pamphlet The Life and Adventures of Common Sense, which states that W.S. was a profligate and a thief ...
1746 The Stratford monument (which may have been placed there by Bacon himself, or his close associates as a joke when the first folio was printed) was replaced. (The image of "Shakespeare" with pen and paper on cushion replaces the figure with a tradesman's sack.)
1761 Roger Ascham's preface Divae Elizabethae, published. See 1566. It indicates that he knew why he was commanded by Queen Elizabeth to do the work The Schoolmaster.
1765 Samuel Johnson writes that Shakspere held horses at the door of the play-house, and in time "found higher employment."
1766 George Steevens, a famous Shakespearean scholar, and a member of the Rosicrosse, reprints openly for the first time, a copy of the hitherto secret book held by the Literary Fraternity, the "1609 Quarto." No one takes any notice of it.
1769 Stratford Jubilee. David Garrick deserves the credit for starting the trend of upgrading Stratford into a proper memorial for the supposed author in his own home town. Almost everything about the life of Shakespeare is mere fabrication, starting with the place where he was born, the school, Anne Hathaway's cottage, the mulberry tree, etc.
Herbert Lawrence, The Life and Adventures of Commonsense the first to raise the Shakespeare authorship question.
1777 Mrs. Hornby arranged an exhibition of objects said to have belonged to Shaksper. It was an outrageous hoax.
1780 An Irish Lawyer named Malone, a Shakespeare scholar, reprints the "1609 Quarto," and alters the text.
1785 James Wilmot formulates thesis that Shakespeare did not write the plays, because upon firsthand investigation in Stratford and environs, he could find almost nothing about him, and nothing which supported him being the author of anything. Wilmot concluded that Francis Bacon was the most likely candidate for the authorship based upon the circumstantial evidence he found. He based his theory on knowledge of law, circulation of blood, designations of three characters in Love's Labour's Lost -- Biron, Dumain, and Longaville which coincide with names of three ministers at the Court of Navarre where Anthony Bacon resided. Wilmot theorized that Bacon destroyed his manuscripts in order to conceal the fact that so exalted a personage had descended to the base art of play writing. Arrived at his conclusion diffidently, but firmly held it. Also found additional confirmation in the numerous extraordinary likenesses of style between the two Elizabethans. But Wilmot did not publish his theory or his findings
1786 The Story of the Learned Pig. One of the pig's friends was Will Shakspear "falsely-fathered" with plays not belonging to him.
1790 Malone writes bitterly that none of the various Editors of Shakespeare "have taken the trouble to compare" the "1609 Quarto Text" with the Benson Medley which they continue to reprint.
1793 George Steevens acts the part of agent provocateur by denouncing the Sonnets. His scathing attack resulted -- as was intended -- in bringing the Sonnets to the notice of the world. Malone rushed in to defend the literary beauty of the Sonnets and the "Sonnet Controversy" began.
1805 James Corton Cowell, Quaker of Ipswich was informed of the Baconian theory.
1806 Cowell gives two addresses before the Ipswich Philosophic Society, which passed into the possession of the University of London Library, ad was there discovered by Professor Allardyce Nicoll. (See 1932)
1837 Lord Macaulay -- wrote on Bacon. Tendency to judge with extreme harshness. "Take Macaulay with a grain of salt." -Winston Churchill
1848 Joseph Hart, first anti-Stratfordian standard bearer, New York lawyer -- not a Baconian. He didn't venture a guess who wrote the Shakespearean works.
1857-1861 Spedding's work on Bacon.
1856-57 Delia Bacon makes her hypothesis public and goes on lecture tour declaring the revolutionary idea that Bacon wrote Shakespeare.
1856 William Henry Smith's book Bacon and Shakespeare
1859 Delia Bacon dies at 48.
1880 "We do not know half enough about Lord Bacon -- let the critics go to Hell." Nietzsche
1883 The Bacon-Shakespeare Craze in Atlantic Monthly Mrs. Pott publishes the Promus, Bacon's notebooks, with many parallel quotes and ideas found in the plays. Very strong argument for Bacon's authorship.
1884 By this time the authorship controversy had stirred France, Germany, and India, as well as England and the U.S. and had produced over 250 books, pamphlets, and articles.
1885-6 The Bacon Society founded by Constance Pott, and Baconiana Anthology started.
1887-88 Ignatius Donnelly The Great Cryptogram. Donnelly Tribunal of Literary Criticism to try the case. Articles in The Arena.
1893 Dr. Owen wrote a pamphlet of rebuttal to above: Request to Reopen Brief for Plaintiff. (request was ignored).
1893-98 Various volumes of Dr. Orville Owen appeared under the title Sir Francis Bacon's Cipher Story, published by Howard Publishing Company, Detroit, Michigan. Includes Mary, Queen of Scots, 1894
1896 George Cantor finds "The Harleian Miscellany" in the British Museum -- the source of 32 elegiac poems on the death of the Lord Chancellor (Manes Verulamiani). These had been printed as extracts in 1640, and in full form in 1730.
1899-1900 Elizabeth Wells Gallup publishes The Biliteral Cypher of Sir Francis Bacon
1909 Eight Shakespeare Quartos (from early 1600's) found in Francis Bacon's library inside the new Gorhambury estate.
1909 Is Shakespeare Dead? Mark Twain's book comes out and he presents his life long interest on the authorship issue by refuting the Stratford Myth and backing Bacon as the Shakespeare author.
1910 Bacon is Shakespeare by Sir Edwin Durning-Lawrence
Gallup says: That the cipher message is enclosed in the works I have deciphered I know, from years of hard and exhaustive study. There is no more doubt of the existence of the cipher and its message than there is of the Morse alphabet and its use at the present day. The study has been of thousands of pages, comparison and classification of hundreds of thousands of the italic letters, and I have the right to claim, and insist, that I know.
1915 The Greatest of Literary Problems, James Finney Baxter by 1915 there were 10,000 volumes written about Shakespeare.
1917 Mrs. Bunten discovered Anthony Bacon's passports were signed with the names Biron, Dumain, Longaville and Boyesse. All were characters in Love's Labors Lost, set in Navarre.
1922 Walter Conrad Arensberg -- with passion for anagrams began with the Cryptography of Dante. This led him to Shakespeare. He endowed the Francis Bacon Foundation on the campus of Pomona college in Claremont.
1931 March 31. Shakespeare's Diary of the Personal Poems of Francis Bacon first published, in which, according to Alfred Dodd," the Sonnets were arranged in their correct numerical(sonnet 23 is first) and chronological order under their Themes and captioned as in the original MS. All the hitherto Secret Themes are openly declared for the first time."
1932 Professor Allardyce Nicoll discovers Cowell's addresses, (based upon Wilmot's researches and theories) which postulate that Bacon wrote Shakespeare, and publishes them in the N.Y. Times Literary Supplement, giving Wilmot his due.
1934 Death of Elizabeth Wells Gallup
1937 The Sixth Edition of Shakespeare's Sonnet-Diary. The long-drawn plan, extending over three hundred years, has been brought to a successful conclusion. The Poet-Prince can now speak openly in his own words to his countrymen of the emotions which swept his soul. (Dodd)
1954 Francis Bacon Foundation endowed on the Pomona College campus in Claremont, California.
1958 The Poacher from Stratford -- Frank Wadsworth (lacks documentation)
Shakespeare and his Betters -- R.C. Churchill
1959-60 Journal of the American Bar Association: Shakespeare Cross-Examined.
1961 400th anniversary of Bacon's birth celebrated by the Bacon Society at Gray's Inn.
1962 Shakespeare and his Rivals -- George McMichael & E.M. Glenn, eds.
The Shakespeare Claimants -- H.N. Gibson
1965 Reply by Milward W. Martin in Was Shakespeare Shakespeare? A Lawyer Reviews the Evidence.
1973 Margaret Barsi-Green I, Prince Tudor Wrote Shakespeare.
1975-6 Dame Daphne Du Maurier writes The Golden Lads and The Winding Stair. Books about the lives of Francis, Anthony and Essex.
1985 Discovery of a Rosicrucian Mural in St. Albans(Bacon's hometown) from 1600 that depicts a Shakespeare scene from Venus and Adonis.
1989 Cosmic Eggs and Quantum Bacon a full-length metaphysical comedy by Tom Mellett is produced at University of Texas at Austin. The plot involves Leonardo da Vinci and Francis Bacon reincarnating as twins into a modern family to re-unite with Will Shakspur. Niels Bohr, Einstein and God appear, with Bohr playing Cupid in a way inspired by Bacon's 1609 essay on "Cupid and the Atom."
1992 Discovery of partial manuscript from Elizabethan time that contains 50 lines from Henry IV, handwriting verified to be Bacon's by Maureen Ward Gandy, leading graphologist of England. British newspapers publish the story.
1994 BBC Program -- A Battle of Wills: Who Wrote Shakespeare? Bacon, Oxford, Marlowe?
1997 Penn Leary, Paul Dupuy, Francis Carr, establish first Baconian web-sites.
"Anne Boleyn", a cipher play, considered for production at the Globe Theatre in London. Project of Mark Rylance, artistic director and actor who has a very high regard for Bacon as the author of the Bard's plays.
1997 Elizabeth Wrigley--curator of Francis Bacon Library in Claremont, CA. for over 50 years, dies.
October, Launching of SIRBACON website.
issue 195, published by the Francis Bacon Society
The Bacon-Shakespeare Question book by Nigel Cockburn
1999 June, issue 196 of Baconiana. This issue is largely devoted to the cross references between Don Quixote and the entries found in Bacon's notebook the Promus 177pages
2001, May, issue of Baconiana, "The Achievement of Francis Bacon" a complete subject and author index to Baconiana (the journal of the FB Society 1886-1999) manuscript submissions for publication should be sent to :
Peter Welsford. Esq.
34 Hartslock Court
Berks. RG8 7BJ
For subscriptions, enquiries, membership (fee is 7.50 pounds; bank check) payable to :
Gerald Salway, Esq.
75A Effra Road
London, SW19 8PS