The Shakespeare Plays are not what they seem. Since the beginning they have held a secret, concealed from the masses, awaiting that distant day when the secret intent of the author should be revealed to the future ages yet to come. The plays are viewed as literary masterpieces. In truth they are scientific masterpieces. Each play is an example of the operation of a very singular logic device, designed to guide the human mind automatically to the discovery of new Arts and Sciences.
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The Secret of the Shakespeare Plays will take you on a journey through the amazing life and works of Francis Bacon. From the Quest for the Historical Superman, Bacon's concept of the Intellectual Globe, an esoteric analysis of the the allegory found in The Faerie Queene and The Tempest, Anatomy of Melancholy, Rosicrucians and the New Atlantis, Dr. John Dee, Oak Island and the Money Pit, to Bacon's acrostic-anagrammatic-cipher in the 1623 Shakespeare Folio based on the scheme presented in Bacon's Great Instauration.
THE QUEST OF THE HISTORICAL SUPERMAN
Of all the ideas encountered in the study of the occult, the paranormal, and the supernatural, probably the most fascinating is the idea that superman may actually exist. The best instance of this idea is the "Masters" of Theosophy, but Theosophy, like other sources, fails to supply a "historical" superman. Certainly, if superman exists, or has existed, there should be the possibility of identifying a specific individual born at a definite time, and at a definite place. Unfortunately one would have to be able to recognize superman. This is a major problem. The idea of superman has always had great fascination for people everywhere, but what, really, is superman? Since man cannot understand superman he fantasizes some fabulous being, and, as a consequence, superman assumes a most chameleon like quality.
Depending upon where it appeared, the idea of superman has passed through some quite amazing transformations. In legend superman is giant, hero, and magus. In history superman is Buddha, Christ, and Caesar. In fiction superman is Wolf Larsen, Sherlock Holmes, and the Count of Monte Christo. In esotericism superman is the Adept of the Alchemists, the Invisible Brothers of the Rosicrucians, and the Masters of Theosophy. As He moves on through the forest of fantasy superman becomes, at one point, the Ubermensch of Nietzsche, at another, the Mutant of the Science Fiction writers, and, at still another, a costumed comic script character.
Only one idea persists throughout. This is the idea that superman transcends limitations which restrict man. In its simplest form this is the idea of the physical superman. Since man has definite physical limitations, it is imagined that superman, as Hercules, Samson, Starke Hans of the fairy tale, or even as Paul Bunyan, is not bound by these limitations. Only slightly less simplistic are ideas about the mental superman. Superman is imagined as a superdeveloped brain, a species of super egghead. In Theosophy superman transcends the greatest of human limitations,- mortality. None of these offer information which is useful in recognizing superman.
It is possible to formulate such criteria. A dog cannot comprehend man. A man cannot comprehend superman. Yet a dog can recognize man, and, equipped with the proper knowledge, a man can recognize superman. What distinguishes a superman from a man, and a man from a dog is their higher states of consciousnesss. For practical application this must be defined precisely enough so the definition can serve as a description by which to recognize superman. Fortunately, the division between the consciousness of man, and the consciousness of superman, is quite distinct, and most people even have some acquaintance with this distinction. Superman possesses superconsciousness. Superconsciousnesss is familiar to some extent to orthodox psychology. Ordinary humans can experience flashes of this state of consciousness in dreams, and in altered states of consciousness, produced either by deep meditation, or by psychedelic drugs. The distinction between man and superman is that superman possesses this consciousness as His normal state of consciousness.
Therefore, if any individual possesses superconsciousness, not involuntarily, as in a dream, or in momentary flashes, as in altered states of consciousness, but in the sustained normal functioning of his mind over a period of time, He is a superman.
Having premised this much, the next requisite is a description of super- consciousness which will enable one to recognize it when it is encountered. A hint comes from the Gnostic mystics. They had the idea that, in a realm above time, there exists the eternal now (the aeon). Similar ideas are echoed in many mystical sources. The root of the notion is the idea that everything arises from a prexisting sate of Oneness. The aeon is that Oneness, and the ultimate state of consciousness being aeonic, is a state of all-inclusiveness. Although this idea is common to mystical sources, it is an exotic notion in orthodox thought, and may be difficult to grasp. Therefore, it may be well to give an example in a more familiar form.
A familiar story, originated by a mystic who had experienced higher states of consciousness, gives a good idea of the contrast between ordinary consciousness and superconsciousness. The original story (by the great Sufi mystic, Jalalu-d-Din Rumi) was called, "The Dark Room and The Elephant." In its more familiar, and later form, the story is known under the title of, "The Blind Men and The Elephant."
In this story four blind men wish to know what an elephant is like. Due to their blindness their perception of the elephant is fragmented. One, having touched a side, thought it was like a wall. Another, having touched a trunk, thought it was like a serpent; another, having touched a leg, thought it was like a pillar; and yet another, having touched the tail, thought it was like a rope.
The awareness of man in relation to the awareness of superman is comparable to the perception of the blindmen in relation to a man with sight. Man perceives a fragment only, although he thinks he perceives the whole. Superman, either perceives the whole, or a much greater portion of the whole. In his aeonic, or holoistic, consciousness, things which appear discrete to the perception of man are actually united, and not discrete at all. Of course, this is really only some faint idea of the consciousness of superman. Man cannot really understand the consciousness of superman because that consciousness opens up an entirely new order of consciousness.
If superman has existed among ordinary men, why are there no known cases in history of superman? Perhaps Homo Sapient was unable to recognize Him, or perhaps He chose not to be recognized.
Consider the speculations of Science Fiction, Superman is the mutant, a biological sport related to ordinary man as ordinary man is related to the dog, but born among ordinary men due to some freak circumstance of nature. A standard speculation is superman would conceal himself. The "chicken anecdote" is used to support this speculation. If a chicken from a group of chickens has a red ribbon tied around its neck and is put back with the others they will begin to peck it, and, if it is not removed, will eventually peck it to death. Members of a species tend to distrust and destroy those different, and what could be more different than superman? If superman appeared He might conceal Himself as a matter of self preservation. Is this why there are no known cases of superman in history?
In Science Fiction the classic short story about superman is IN HIDING by W.H. Shiras. The classic novel is ODD JOHN by Olaf Stapleton. In the story by Shiras, a school teacher brings a boy of eight or nine to a psychologist for an examination. She explains that the boy appears perfectly normal, but when one has been teaching as as she has, there is a feeling about certain students. She feels there is something different about the boy. Something she can't put her finger on. Perhaps a delusion of grandeur, or a withdrawing from society.
When the psychologist examines the boy, he also gradually begins to sense this difference. Eventually he discovers the boy's intellect is so radically beyond the norm as to place him in an altogether higher species than Homo Sapient. Having become aware of this difference at an early age the boy had acquired the habit of concealing himself. To avoid attracting attention to himself, he has published all of his writings under pseudonymns, and conducted all of his experiments in secret.
The story by Olaf Stapleton deals with the same basic ideas. The boy recognizes his difference from others at an early age. He takes pains to conceal this difference. He authors a great many works pseudonymously. He has a private retreat where he pursues his experiments in secret. Allowing these speculations superman would conceal himself. Consequently it is probable no one, except possibly a few close acquaintances, would ever know He had existed at all. For subsequent ages the only indication of his existence might be peculiar literary works which continue to transcend the understanding of successive generations of readers or commentators.
Historical cases of superman are rare. I know of only four cases. From these I will consider in a very limited fashion only one case. This case is that having the most information bearing upon the subject of this book. The particular superman I will consider was the individual who wrote the "Shakespeare" plays. If I attempted to cover His full story the narrative would extend into several very lengthy books, and would be too incredible to be believed anyway. What follows is merely a glimpse.
I became aware of His existence quite by accident. It happened this way. Several years ago I had read the play The Tempest for some reason or the other. In the process of reading the play, I detected something which caused me to become very curious as to its real nature. It was not long before I began to experience a curious phenomena in regards to the play. The more I brooded upon it, the more it continued to unfold, with additional aspects of meaning continuing to appear in a very remarkable manner. This went on for several months. Then one night I had a very strange experience.
I had been sleeping. At some time during the night I passed into a state of consciousness between sleep and waking. Then I realized a strange process was taking place in my consciousness. It was as if some device had been triggered which activated a process like a computer printout; level after level of meaning in The Tempest was passing before my awareness. It was an utterly bizarre experience. This process of perceiving ever more and more levels of meaning in the play continued in my consciousness for an almost interminable time until there came a feeling of being caught up in an infinitude of levels for which there was no end.
Then I passed into another state of consciousness. My perception in this state was even stranger. Through some strange inner faculty I was aware of the entire play in one perception. At the same time I knew this was how the author of the play had perceived it. There was a unity to it's totality yet, at the same time, the play was an exquisite array of precisely counter-poised opposing entities; each precisely equal to its opposite, so that, overall, there was an absolute equilibrium of opposing entities; the two radical entities being darkness and light; and all the others arising from the opposition and struggle between these two. Suddenly there arose in my consciousness a kind of terror. This exquisite array was so exact, so inexonerable, so implacable, it was terrifying in its unrelenting power. There was a terrible beauty to it like the "fearful symmetry" of Blake's tiger.
I had only a glimpse of this perception of the play before I passed into full waking consciousness. I did not know what caused the experience.
Perhaps the nature of the play was such that prolonged brooding upon it could evoke a temporary enhancement of consciousness. What I did know, definitely, and beyond any peradventure of a doubt was that the consciousness of the author of the play was aeonic. The author of play had been a superman!
Whereas my first experience with the play had aroused curiousity, this later experience opened up a real mystery. Then, as I continued to delve into the play, I came across a message that proved Francis Bacon was its author. The proof was on the second page of The Tempest , and was in the form of a plain text message which, strangely enough, had escaped detection for over 300 years. That it had was strange, but, in any case, the proof was mathematical, and was, therefore, definite and incontrovertible. An examination of this passage shows the message Second page of the First Folio edition of 1623 SIT THE DIAL AT NBW, F. BACON, TOBEY spelled out with the first letters of the respective lines:
T Then Prospero, Mafter of a full poore cell,
A And thy no greater Father.Mira. More to know
D Did neuer medle with my thoughts.Pros. 'Tis time
I I fshould informe thee farther: Lend thy hand
A And plucke my Magick garment from me: So,
L Lye there my Art: wipe thou thine eyes, haue comfort,
THE The direfull fpectacle of the wracke which touch'd
T The very vertue of compaffion in thee:
I I haue with fuch prouifion in mine ART
S So fafely ordered, that there is no foule
N No not fo much perdition as an hayre
B Betid to any creature in the veffell
W Which thou heardft cry, which thou faw'st finke: Sit
F For thou muft now know farther. downe,Mira. You haue often
B Begun to tell me what I am, but ftopt
A And left me to a booteleffe inquisition,
CON Concluding, ftay, not yet. Prof. The howr's now come
T The very minute byds thee ope thine eare,
OBEY Obey, and be attentiue.
SEE THE DIAL
Tobey, or Tobie Matthew (the spelling was quite plastic in those days), was Bacon's closest companion who played an important, although subordinate role in carrying out Bacon's designs. He was so close to Bacon that Bacon called him "another myself", and, in a letter to Conde Gondomar said, "Profection domini Tobiae Matthaei, qui mihi est tanquam alter ego.." And this is brought out in the message in the Folio. In the Folio there are two columns of text on each page, and the column next to the signatures adds to the message:
If Matthew was Bacon's alter ego then they must, indeed, have been "two alike."
Actually there is still more to the message. Reading across one finds another word added in the first column on page 3:
The added word "banito" is Italian and means banished. So now we have the message: F. Bacon, Tobey, Two Alike, banished.
That is applies to Tobey Matthew is well known. While he was on the continent he became converted to Catholicism, and when he returned to England he felt that the oath of allegiance to King James contained clauses which conflicted with his faith. Therefore he refused to take the oath, and, as a result, was banished from England in 1608.
There is nothing on the surface to indicate "banished" applies to Bacon. However, Baconians have long claimed exactly this. They claim Bacon was the son of Queen Elizabeth, and due to her refusal to acknowledge this, was banished from his rightful heritage as king of England.
There is much more to the message. Except for noting, however, that the alternate direction pattern of the letters of the message is set out in the particular order found in the message in order to indicate that the compass direction should be read in both direction (i.e. NBW and WBN) I must defer explanation. The first important point about the message is that it readily admits of mathematical analysis. The odds against the possibility of such a message occurring accidently can easily be calculated. To illustrate the principle involved in such a calculation, suppose you are one of the forty candidates for possible selection for a job. The odds (nepotism and other facts of life aside) are clearly 40 to 1 against your being selected. If we extend the hypothetical case a bit, we can derive a principle for calculating the probability of occurrence. Suppose, that Out of the 40 people, 20 people are first selected; then, from the 20 people, five are selected, and finally, from the five, one is selected. the odds, of course, are still 40 to 1 against your being selected. It is necessary only to multiply the fractions representing the odds in each event to arrive at the answer:
The calculation relating to the probability of the message in the First Folio is based on the same principle, and is as simple to follow. It is necessary only to make a frequency count of the occurrence of letters (and letter groups) which constitute the message, from the beginning of each line, and then multiply these out, in order to arrive at the odds. In their book "The Shakespearean Ciphers Examined", William and Elizabeth Friedman provided the following frequency table showing the number of times each letter of the alphabet occurred at the beginning of each line per 1000 lines in the First Folio:
A 117.9 F 34.5 K 3.5 P 17.4 U 7.8 B 53.7 G 19.0 L 22.7 Q 1.0 V 4.5 C 24.1 H 61.7 M 45.7 R 9.3 W 105.7 D 21.8 I 104.6 N 37.4 S 60.5 X .0 E 8.0 J .7 0 42.5 T 165.7 Z .0
Expressed as a fraction each of these represents a numerator of which the denominator is 1,000. For example,"S", the first letter in the message, would be the fraction 60.5/1,000, and, to reduce the numerator to one in order to reduce the labor of the calculation, both the numerator and the denominator may be devided by the numerator, yielding: 1/16.53, and so on for each letter of the message. I have counted the letter groups myself and found them to be: THE 1/32.6; CON 1/2317; and OBEY 1/2317.
This gives the following calculation:
S I THE D I A
* * * * *
L T N B W F
* * * * *
B A CON T OBEY
* * * *
S I THE D I A 1/16.53 1/9.50 1/32.6 1/45.87 1/9.56 1/8.48 L T N B W F 1/44.05 1/6.03 1/26.74 1/18.62 1/9.46 1/28.99 B A CON T OBEY 1/18.62 1/8.48 1/2317 1/6.03 1/2317
The answer in scientific notation is:
Or, (in all its majesty):
This represents the odds to 1 against the probability of this message having resulted from random chance. It is difficult to conceive what odds of this magnitude imply. Some idea can be gained by paralleling this with a comparable run of heads or tails while flipping a coin. If you flipped a coin for, say two hours continuously, you might experience a run of ten consecutive heads, or thereabouts. The fraction for each flip is 1/2, therefore, the odds against another consecutive head in the run would double with each flip. What does the figure computed above imply in these terms? The above odds are approximately equal to a coin falling heads 87 times consecutively.
If you imagined a million people tossing coins 10 times a minute, 40 hours a week, such a run could only be expected to happen once in every 3,600,000,000,000 centuries. To put this into perspective, this means that if all the humans who ever lived upon this planet had spent all their waking moments flipping coins, the odds are such a run would never have happened. The point is - the odds against such a message happening accidentally are just too astronomical for chance to even be considered.
Nevertheless, even the astronomical figure computed above for the odds against the message being chance is only a fraction of the real odds. For one thing, the "two alike" is part of the message, and would have to be included in the computation, but far beyond this still, what I have given is only a small portion of the complete message. The Great Folio of 1623 has two columns of text on each page, and the message is as follows:
Page 1-Column 2
Page 2 -Column 1
Page 2-Column 2
Page 3-Column 1
A close examination of these messages reveals that what is presented is, in fact, three messages set out in three columns:
COLUMN 1: HID AOTADIALTHETISNBWFBACONTOBEYAI
COLUMN 2: DUO BOTTA TWO ALIKE
COLUMN 3: TWOSOW BANITO
In Elizabethan times hit was commonly used to mean hid. Botta is Italian, and means "blow" or "fall". Banito is also Italian, and means banished. It may be that "SOW" in "TWOSOW" means Sons of the Widow in light of the masonic symbolism in the play, or it may also mean "Sons of Wisdom". It indicates some type of secret organization. The "AO" seems to be associated with the direction WBN since it terminates the message reading upward; while the AI seems to be associated with the direction NBW, since it terminates the message reading downward, and this is further corroborated by the NBW in the 2nd column. So the messages signify:
However, in further analyzing the message it will be seen that there are also three messages reading across:
What this seems to mean (assuming I have dug out all of the message of which I am by no means certain) and as is collaborated by further investigation into the meaning in the play is that there are three messages, each with a dual significance:
There is a strange story behind all of this. Francis Bacon was a super-man. Of a distinctly higher and separate species from man. He became aware of his difference at an early age and concealed himself. He had a retreat where he made experiments in secret. He put forth writings secretly under many masks beginning at a very early age. Also, at a very early age he became obsessed with the great idea of bringing about a complete renewal of all human knowledge. He saw that, although many men had spent time in the quest for new arts and science, no one had developed a science for discovering new arts and sciences. On the contrary, the whole business was nothing more than a tempest, full of sound and fury without direction. Bacon proceeded to invent a discovery machine which would guide the mind of man directly to the discovery of new arts and sciences just as the compass guided mariners in their voyages across the ocean to the discovery of the New World.
In various passages in his works Bacon left an account of the struggles he endured in an effort to give this knowledge to mankind. He said he began to have doubts that "it flew too high over their heads". He said he was met with ridicule and opposition when he tried to disclose it. Also, due to the power such knowledge would convey, he had concerns about making it available to the general public. He concluded that mankind was not yet ready for this knowledge. On the other hand he was confident that with the advancement of science that the time would ultimately arrive when mankind would be ready for the knowledge he had to give them.
Bacon found the invention of his discovery device was only half of his task. He must also devise a method to perserve this knowledge until such a time as mankind was ready for it. Londoners were going in droves to the public entertainments. To the bull and bear baitings, and to the plays which had begun to appear on the London stages. Bacon began to construct a series of very remarkable artifacts, almost miraculous in their true nature. He disguised these artifacts as plays for the entertainment of the masses, but they were actually models of the operation of his discovery device. In each case the model demonstrated the operation of his discovery device in inquiring into the essential nature of some particular aspect of knowledge Bacon had chosen. In each case the model was constructed so the discovery process could be followed as an entertaining game built around an analogue miniature model of the great globe which was incorporated into the play, and with the discovery device designed as an Intellectual Compass to be used in guiding the seeker in his sailing voyage of discovery on that model globe.
He could not, of course, put forth these plays under his own name. He was zealously trying to obtain the high office which would afford him the power and means to promote his Instauration, and the presence of his name on plays written for the vulgar masses would have left a stigma on his name which would present a great deterrent to his quest for high office. Furthermore, by putting forth his works under "masks", and disguising his knowledge under metaphor, allusion, and allegory, this knowledge would find a quiet entrance into the minds of men without evoking ridicule and opposition. In order to ensure the preservation of his works he deliberately designed them to be enduring masterpieces of literature.
He reasoned that this device of "masked" works, and "masked" knowledge would have an inherent power of winning support. While others saw only entertainment, some few would discern the key, and those who did would take pride in their accomplishment, and in the fact that through their own ability they had became a member of the elect. Further, the very principle of human vanity would make it inevitable that eventually the knowledge he had concealed in the "plays" would eventually be made public. As time passed and Bacon proceeded with his plans he eventually developed not one, but three methods, to ensure that his knowledge would not be lost to mankind:
1. He concealed this knowledge in "plays" also devised as models demonstrating the operation of his discovery device in the process of discovering that particular knowledge.
2. He entrusted the formula of the use of his discovery device to a secret society to whom was enjoined the mission of transmitting it to future generations up to the time when it could be made public.
3. He caused all the details of his knowledge to be buried in a very ingeniously concealed vault which was devised so it could only be opened at some distant future age.
These three methods were the basis for the three meanings of the messages Bacon constructed into The Tempest, his last "play." Then Bacon passed from the stage. Decades passed into centuries. The secret society which had been enjoined to keep Bacon's secret for 120 years, sank into oblivion before revealing the secret. The location of the vault was finally found although only one or two people never suspected it had anything to do with Bacon, and again lost due to repeated abortive attempts to excavate it. Finally only the "plays" remained. And they will remain as long as civilization endures, just as Bacon planned. I will cover all of this in detail, and show what the solution to Bacon's message reveals, but before I do, there are some stock ideas used by Bacon, and these must first be understood. They are as follows:
1. The Intellectual Globe
2. The Universality of Contrarieties in the universe
3. The Alphabet of Nature
4. The idea of love as the primary force in the mental and physical universe
5. The scheme of Bacon's Great Instauration
6. The Intellectual Globe
Bacon's entire system of thought was based on his concept of the Intellectual Globe. As God had created the great globe,- the world, so Bacon created the small globe, the Intellectual Globe. The latter was a replica in miniature of the former.
The idea was explicit in the title of Bacon's great program for The Advancement of Learning,- the Great Instauration. Just as God had endowed man with an estate and rulership over earth before the Fall, so Bacon intended to imitate God in restoring that estate to man. The word Instauration came from the Latin instaurare, (to renew, to begin afresh), and signified restoration of man to his place before the Fall. God's creation had six parts, so therefore, the creation of Bacon. The creation of God ended with the Sabbath. The Great Instauration ended with a piece titled Parasceve, the vulgate word for the Jewish day of preparation for the Sabbath.
The scheme opens what may be our only window in the mindset of the superman. As a superman Bacon was literally a walking god. He knew that he was a higher being than man, and the scheme of the Great Instauration reflects that realization. In the New Atlantis Bacon called his house of Solamon (his utopian scientific institution) the College of the Six Days Work; further identifying the idea behind the sixfold scheme of his Instauration.
Bacon's goal was to restore man to that original understanding of all nature which was his before the Fall, and, consequently, to the rulership of nature and the elements which had been rightfully his by divine endowment. Bacon would do for man what previously had been done for him only by God. He would give man back the Garden.
Bacon took the symbolic depiction of a ship sailing out beyond the gates of Hercules as a device for the headpiece of his Great Instauration.
This was integral to his concept of the Intellectual Globe. The ancient world had its center in the Mediterrean Sea. At the western end of this sea the straits of Gibralter led into that great unknown - the Atlantic Ocean. Legend had it, that on either side of these straits where they had met the Atlantic Ocean, had stood giant pillars of stone, constructed by Hercules. These pillars marked the limits of the ancient world.
Inscribed on them were the words, NON PLUS ULTRA (no more beyond). To the ancients the Atlantic Ocean was the end of the world.
In Bacon's time, however, ships had sailed forth beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and discovered a New World (America) far to the West. The opening up of this New World had a far greater impact on the public mind of the day than the moon landing on contemporary times. This was no dead satellite. In Bacon's time the situation was literally that of two worlds the old world centered around the Mediterranean Sea; and the new world beckoning outside the Mediterranean Sea, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, far across the Atlantic Ocean. Bacon chose PLUS ULTRA for his motto.
Scientific discovery, as Bacon depicted it, was continually a sailing voyage of discovery on a metaphoric Intellectual Globe which corresponded in every particular to the great globe. Was there an old world of the physical globe centered around the Mediterranean Sea? Very well, there was also an old world of the Intellectual Globe bequeathed from antiquity. Was there a new world of the physical globe out beyond the gates of Hercules? Very well, there was also a New World of the Intellectual Globe waiting to be discovered by men when they should sail forth from their small Mediterranean Sea of received knowledge, and, guided by the Intellectual Compass would discover a New World of the Sciences. Certainly the world of human knowledge, of the sciences, had, like the physical globe, its Old and New Worlds.
In his Advancement Bacon proceeded on a metaphoric voyage on his Intellectual Globe, beginning with the major divisions of History, Poetry, and Philosophy, and proceeding through the subsidiary divisions until he could finally say:
"And now we have finished our small globe of the intellectual world with all the exactness we could, marking out and des-cribing those parts of it which we find either not constantly inhabited or sufficiently cultivated."
The Universality of Contrarieties
Since the play was a model of the universe the exquisite array of opposites in The Tempest was Bacon's perception of the scheme of things entire. He had actually left a first hand account of his discovery of this duality within the unity of the universe. Writing under the mask of Robert Fludd in THE MOSAICAL PHILOSOPHY, Bacon described experiences which occurred to him (apparently during the course of his experiments at Twickenham Park). He said by "diligent inquiry" he had arrived at the point where he understood that all sympathy and antipathy in universal nature arose from different passions of the soul, whereof one was concupiscible, and the other was irascible, and that, at this point in his inquiry, he was seized with an especial desire to discover the root of this manifestation. Continuing to pursue this desire to obtain a full understanding of this strange manifestation in nature he pondered the Eternal Unity which is the root of all things, but could discover no such diversity in it since it existed in Eternal Oneness. Finally he arrived at an understanding that a two-fold force, diametrically opposed, and, in precise opposition and equality arose from the Eternal Unity. The arising, he says, was due to the fact that although that primal essence was entire and one, yet it admitted of two properties: Volunty (willing), and Nolunty (not willing), and willing of the eternal principle was expressed by light, and not-willing was expressed by darkness.
When the Eternal Unity willed not, he said, it reserved itself within itself, and left the Universal Abyss or Chaos, dark, deformed, quite void, and destitute of its vivifying act, or resplendent brightness, and when it willed it sent out the benign and salutary brightness of its essence into the deformed Chaos, forcing deformity or darkness and privation to give place unto their opposite co-rivals, conformity, or light and position, which are the affirmative acts of life and essential existence. The result I will return to this subject of Robert Fludd as a mask of Bacon's later, and at that time I will consider the question in more detail.
(of the actions of these two opposing forces, he said, was to produce in this world an infinity of contrarieties, which are esteemed by mortals to be good or evil, according as by effect they find them.)
Apparently Bacon's perception was identical to that described by the ancient Vedic seers. They saw the entire universe as illusion, but illusion with a peculiar quality. The illusion was produced by maya, and the peculiar quality of mayic illusion was the universal presence of opposites. Each unit of opposites in the mayic universe was composed of a matching pair with each twin being a precisely equal and diametrically opposed mirror image of its opposite. The presence of such opposites was an infallible sign of the presence of maya or illusion.
According to Bacon, just as written language, although almost inifinite in variety, is composed of a very limited number of letters, so the almost infinite variety of nature is composed of a very limited number of basic natures (such as soft, hard, light, heavy, etc.). Any particular in nature is composed of a few of these qualities. If man could gain a complete understanding of the laws underlying them, so that he could change one quality into another at will, then he could gain complete control over nature.
If he wanted to manufacture gold, for example, and understood the laws of density, color, malleability, etc., he would have the power to manufacture gold in any quantity by altering the nature of other substances to change their qualities into those of gold.
Bacon referred to his "masked" works as Works of the Alphabet and marked them with some variation of the following emblem: (light and dark)
Love (symbolized by the cupids) was the primary force in Bacon's system, operating in both the external world of matter and the internal world of the mind (the internal world being concealed was represented in the emblem by the dark A). Hence the "A's" represented the alphabet of nature; the light and dark "A's" their operation in the external and internal world, and, at the same time, the universality of opposites. The emblem with the "A's" touching and the cupids holding the sheaf of wheat, expressed the idea, frequently used by Bacon, of the union between the external and internal worlds resulting in a fruitful harvest of benefits for man.
Love as the primary force
In Bacon's science the primary force was love. In Bacon's symbolism he drew heavily on traditional ideas of love. This use of tradition enabled him to construct miniature models of the great world with the very quiddity of the great world built into them,- the universal cycles which are the most prominent features of the physical globe - the systolic-diastolic cycles of day and night, of summer and winter, and so on. One must understand the symbolism of the traditional allegory of love in order to understand Bacon's symbolism.
The usual starting point for the concept of love in the renaissance tradition was Plato, but before Plato was, the rose was, and in the sonnets Bacon said:
"For nothing in this wide universe I call Save thou, my rose; in it thou art my all."
If the renaissance tradition owed a debt to the pedigree of the symbolic rose, in Bacon's system the rose was all.
The rose seems to have always been as much a symbol as a flower. The beautiful rose, appearing early in the spring, and as quickly disappearing, was associated early with the idea of beauty, and of the evanescence of earthly beauty. In Egypt the rose was the flower of Isis who personified the feminine, generative principle of universal nature; and thus, the rose in turn, became the emblem of the generative principle of universal nature. The rose was also the flower of Venus, and of her son Cupid, or Eros (the anagram emphasized the symbolism) and, as such, was the symbol of love.
When Plato appeared on the scene with his two great dialogues dealing with love (The Symposium and The Phaedrus), the rose as the symbol of love, and of the female generative principle in the world at large, had already taken deep root. Plato, however, set his own seal on the doctrine of love.
In the Symposium a number of ideas were developed. First there was the idea of the two Venuses-the heavenly Venus, and the earthly Venus. The earthly Venus ruled over the love and desires of the body, while the realm of the heavenly Venus was the intellectual. Next, love was a cosmic force of attraction and repulsion to be observed in animals, plants, and in all things. Another idea was that of the original spherical man-woman who was split and searches for its' missing half. Love was also that unbegotten force which arose from chaos in the beginning to create order in unformed matter.
Above all love is the desire produced by the beautiful for generation upon the body of the beautiful. And this is not a merely fleshly generation. The passion for the beautiful begins with devotion to one beautiful body, generalizes itself in the love of all bodily beauty, and rises by successive graduation through the love of beautiful souls, thoughts, laws, institutions, to the contemplation of the infinite sea of the beautiful, and the final apprehension of the absolute, timeless, spaceless, idea of beauty that transcends all the particular embodiments whose beauty is derived from it by participation, and which comes into being and passes away while it remains eternally the same. In other words, love is that cosmic power of attraction evoked by the hierarchy of beauty which successively rises fallen souls through higher and higher stages until they finally once again attain union with THE ONE.
In the Phaedrus the analogy is developed at some length of the soul as a charioteer (representing reason) who drives two steeds, one white in color and noble, every striving to soar upward the heavens, and the other black in color, degenerate and unruly, and every striving to plunge downward. But the dialogue finds a resting place in the idea that love is that longing in the soul of man which will not allow him to rest until he finally becomes reunited with immortal beauty - the garment of the ONE.
The next phrase in these ideas was the rebirth of Platonism in Alexandria several hundred years later,- what is commonly referred to as Neo-Platonism. Plotinus systematized the Platonic universe into four levels; The One, The Universal Mind, The World Soul, and the reflected shadow or physical world,- a true prefigurement of Bacon's Pyramid.
The next civilization through which the stream of the tradition flowed was Islam. Here the mysticism of the rose; of Plato, and of Neo-Platonism all merged into the mysticism of the Sufi, and the Mystic Rose bloomed.
What was the mystic rose? In the Song of Songs of the Old Testament, Solomon wrote of a burning passion for the Rose of Sharon. Later day Kabbalistic commentators interpreted the Rose as symbolizing the burning love for God. "Always", says Evelyn Underhill, "The mystic vision is of a spiritual universe held within the bonds of love: and of the free and restless human soul, having within it the spark of divine desire."
In Mystic Islam, the Rose, symbol of beauty, of the generative force in universal nature, of the burning love for the divine, became the Mystic Rose which inspired the deathless longing in the heart of the mystic, drawing him through all the forms of earth back towards his celestial origin. Here arose the oft repeated tale of the Nightingale (the mystic longing in the human heart) and his passionate love for the Rose (love and transcedental magnetic beauty, existing as an all powerful attractive center in the heart of deity.)
One of the most famous Sufi works was The Parliament of The Birds by Fariddudin Attar. In this great mystical work, the birds (humanity) were called together by the hoopoe (the Sufis) to begin a search for their mysterious King. The Hoopooe tells them they will have to traverse seven valleys. The passionate nightingale comes forward, beside himself with fervor.
"I know the secrets of love," He twitters, "Throughout the night I give my love call. I myself teach the secrets; and it is my song which is the lament of the mystic flute, and which the lute wails. It is I who set the Rose in motion, and move the hearts of lovers. Continuously I teach new mysteries, each moment new notes of sadness, like the waves of the sea. Whoever hears me loses his wits in rapture, contrary to his normal way. When I am long bereft of my love the Rose, I lament unceasingly...and when the Rose returns to the world in Summer, I open my heart to joy. My secrets are not known to all - but the Rose knows them. I think of nothing but the Rose; I wish nothing but the ruby Rose."
This speech shows a particular aspect of the symbolism which became important in its development. The presence of the Rose is identified with Summer, its absence with Winter. This is most obvious in the famous poem by the Turkish Sufi, Mohammed Fasli, THE ROSE AND THE NIGHTINGALE. In this story a radiant Shah named Springtime has a beautiful daughter named Rose. She is the very essence of beauty. There is a wanderer, the slave of want, who love has claimed for its slave. Though beggared, forlorn, and sick for love, this wanderer is noble in descent and birth. His name is Nightingale. When Nightingale learns of the Rose he yearns for nothing else. But King August appears in the East, devastating the earth, and he is followed by King Autumn, and King Winter, until the Rose Garden is completely devastated. The monarch of Spring, however, has journeyed far South to the land of a monarch of astounding might. This is King Equinox, and he drives King Winter away so King Spring can regain his throne, and once again the Rose rules her realm, and she and Nightingale are united. The next stage in the descent of the tradition found the Sufi teaching spreading to the region of Provence in Southern France. Here the mystical Sufi doctrine underwent a metamorphosis at the hands of the wandering troubadours, and was assimilated to the tradition of Courtly Love, whose deity was The Lady. Through service and sacrifice to The Lady the aspirant won the prize of The Rose,- Love and Beauty. This tradition engendered extended and complicated allegories dealing with love whose emblem was The Rose. The most important work in this genre was the famous Romance of The Rose. In the Romance of The Rose a whole galaxy of personifications: hatred, covetousness, avarice, envy, sorrow, felony, and villany; were not allowed in the ideal lover, and had to be defeated before entering the Rose Garden. Even inside the garden an array of others Idleness, Lady Courtesy, Youth, Lady Richness, Largess, stood between the aspirant and the company of that fair young man - the god of love, of beauty, and The Rose. Between the aspirant and The Rose stood a thorny hedge (social convention) but he was led past by Bialacoil (Fair Welcome), and safely passed the lair of Danger, Malebouche, Shame, Fear and Jealousy. In the tradition of Courtly Love the Rose became interchangeable with The Lady. Beatrice herself was a replica in miniature of the Great Rose, and, when Dante referred to her as a marvel desired in heaven he was echoing the well known carol of his day:
"For in this rose contained was Heavene and erthe in litel space. Res miranda."
"Res Miranda, thing wonderful, or admirable", in The Tempest the name of the Rose was Miranda, but Dante brought a new connotation to the tradition, She became identified with Philosophy. The Lady had passed through three stages. With the Troubadours She was originally, in her personification of The Rose, an emblem of the burning desire for the divine. Then, in Courtly Love, she became sometimes an idolized figure and sometimes a frankly sensual object of desire. Finally she became Philosophy personified, and service and sacrifice to The Lady represented service and sacrifice to learning and philosophy.
Dante died in 1321. The next, and final stage in the evolution of the tradition, did not begin until more than one and a half centuries later on November 7, 1474. On this day a banquet was held by the Platonic Academy of Florence in commemoration of the birthday of Plato, and Marsilio Ficino delivered a commentary on the Symposium.
Ficino's commentary inspired an entire genre of writings known as trattati d'amore (Treatises of Love). These works carried the tradition into a highly conventionalized and specialized form which took its inspiration from those two famous dialogues of Plato. Special emphasis was given to the role of the eyes in the ritual of love. Love enters through the eyes, they said. References to the "darkness" of love might involve elaborate similes in which the beloved was compared to the sun; the image of the beloved to the sun's rays; love to light; and deprivation of love to obscurity.
The stages of love were compared to climbing the successive rungs of a ladder. "In the ladder of love one ascends from step to step." The first step is from looking into his lady's eyes to touching her hand. Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola sets out six stages in the ladder of love. In the following, the stages of Bacon's Instauration are listed beside them so the correspondence can easily be seen:
Mirandola Bacon 1.A specific beautiful body is presented to the eye. 1.Particulars (The Advancement) 2. The beautiful body is analysed by the mind. 2. The particular is analysed by the mind(Novum
Organum) 3.The mind passes from the specific to all beautiful
bodies. 3. The mind passes from the specific to all bodies of a
like nature. (The Histories) 4.The ascent is made by the intellect to the form of
ideal beauty. 4. The ascent is made by the intellect to the form of all
bodies of a like nature. (Ladder of the Intellect) 5.True beauty is viewed. 5.The anticapation The intellect is united to the universal mind. 6.The true philosophy is attained.
1.A specific beautiful body is presented to the eye.
1.Particulars (The Advancement)
2. The beautiful body is analysed by the mind.
2. The particular is analysed by the mind(Novum Organum)
3.The mind passes from the specific to all beautiful bodies.
3. The mind passes from the specific to all bodies of a like nature. (The Histories)
4.The ascent is made by the intellect to the form of ideal beauty.
4. The ascent is made by the intellect to the form of all bodies of a like nature. (Ladder of the Intellect)
5.True beauty is viewed.
The intellect is united to the universal mind.
6.The true philosophy is attained.
This schematic of Mirandola's gave much sustenance to Renaissance writers, but Bacon got the most mileage out of it. He found it a perfect schema for the process of induction; a vehicle of tradition of such scope and power it could carry the burden of his allegorical Intellectual Globes with all their diversity and intricacy.
This schema of allegory is clearly established in the earliest Comedies, and continues through to the last plays. In Love's Labour Lost, for example, is a model of an Academy, and a play which apparently contrasts learning and loving with the palm going to loving. But the scenes concerning loving are filled with those conventionalized and specialized devices of the trattati d'amore, and the two songs at the end make direct identification of learning with winter, and loving with spring or summer. The real differentiation is between empiric or scholastic learning and inductive learning.
In the Winters Tale, one of the last plays, the entire play is almost exactly divided between Winter and Spring or summer. In the Winter half Hermione becomes a statue which only comes back to life in the summer half, directly illustrating Bacon's comments: "...philosophy, like a statue, is surrounded by crowds of worshippers but never moves."
"Philosophy and the intellectual sciences, on the contrary, stand like statues, worshipped and celebrated, but not moved or advanced."
Preface to the Great Instauration
So, with the use of the traditional allegory of love, Bacon is able to endow the worlds he creates, his Intellectual Globes, with the contrasting cycles of the Great Globe, the material world. Winter and night, the death and inactivity of organic life on earth are the death and inactivity of the Arts and Sciences in his Intellectual Globe. Spring and summer, the life and activity of organic life on earth are the life and activity of the Arts and Sciences. Love, as supported by the inductive ladder of the trattati d'amore, is the exercise of the true inductive art, or science for the discovery of Arts and Sciences.
This allegorical matter runs through the entire cycle of the sonnets in which absence from love is winter and its presence spring or summer. In the Anatomy of Melancholy the discussion of love, following the trattati d'amore, says:
"Love may be reduced to a two fold division, according to the principal parts which are affected, the brain and the liver; love and friendship, which Scaliger, Valesius and Melancthon, warrant out of Plato, from that speech of Pausanias, belike, that makes two Venuses and two loves: One Venus is ancient, without a mother, and descended from heaven, whom we call celestial: the younger begotten of Jupiter and Dione, whom commonly we call Venus.
Ficinus in his comment upon this place, following Plato, calls these two loves two Devils, or good and bad Angels according to us, which are still hovering about our souls: the one rears to heaven, the other depresseth us to hell; the one good, which stirs us up to the contemplation of that divine beauty, for whose sake we perform Justice, and all godly offices, study philosophy & c., the other base, and, though bad, yet to be respected; for indeed both are good in their own nature..."
and when we see the same idea expressed in almost identical words in Sonnet CXLIV:
Two loves have I of comfort and despair
Which like two spirits do suggest me still:
The better angel is a man right fair, The worser spirit is a woman colour'd ill. To win me soon to hell, my female evil Tempteth my better angel from my side, And would corrupt my saint to be a devil, Wooing his purity with her foul pride. nothing could be more obvious than the fact that the reference is to the two loves of the trattati d'amore. Yet whole libraries have been written by misguided and misunderstanding types who swear they have established the exact identity of the fair young man and the dark lady of the sonnets. They have played a longer running and more bizarre comedy than ever appeared on any stage.
In his symbolic constructions Bacon typically used a microcosmic model which could mirror either the diurnal or annual cycle; and the zodiac (which was, indeed, an ancient model of the universe) often entered into his microcosm. The characters in The Tempest were probably either modeled after the zodiac, or modeled on the same principles from which the zodiac was modeled. The zodiac has six signs which are opposites to the other six, and included among its signs are Gemini (the twins) and Virgo the Virgin. The named characters in the play (apart from the spirits in the masque) are as follows:
I list Adrian and Francisco together because they are listed this way in the First Folio. Now these 12 characters fall out exactly into two opposite groups of six. Six are just and good, and six are unjust and evil:
Good Unjust and
Evil 1. Prospero 2. Alonso 3. Gonzalo 4.Antonio 5. Ferdinand 6. Sebastian 7. Miranda 8. Trinculo 9. Ariel 10. Caliban 11. Adrain & Francisco 12. Stephano
Just and Good
Unjust and Evil
11. Adrain & Francisco
Adrian and Francisco (who are listed together) would apparently represent Gemini, the twins, while Miranda would represent Virgo, the virgin. Caliban would represent Pisces (we are told in the play he was part fish) and so on.
This pattern runs throughout Bacon's works. Spedding established that the anonymous Gesta Grayorum of 1594 was the work of Francis Bacon. In this work the 12 days of Christmas (the period of the revels at Gray's Inn with which the Gesta Grayorum was concerned) are utilized as a microcosm of the annual cycle with it's twelve zodiac divisions.
It may be noted in passing that the same number and division of characters is found in King Lear.
Many Baconians have given evidence to support their claims that Bacon wrote the "Spenser" works. In the Harvey Spenser letters, Harvey refers to "Spenser" as a young lawyer plus other features which would apply to Bacon, but not to Edmund Spenser, who, on best authority was in his sixties at the time. With the background of the Intellectual Globe and Instauration in mind it seems certain Bacon was the author of the "Spenser" works. Alastair Fowler demonstrated that each of the six books of The Faerie Queene(in addition to an intricate numerical symbolism) represented one of the days of the week. Kathleen Williams demonstrated that the author's image of the whole work was of a glass globe in which was reflected in miniature, the image of the great globe. This, of course, is the basic Baconian symbolism. Beyond this, however, no one could fail to see that The Fairie Queene is an allegory of learning. The Red Cross Knight, in the beginning episode, becomes lost in the forest of the world and meets and gives battle to the Dragon of Error. The work is concerned with the Advance- ment of Learning in its first book, just as the first stage of the Instauration is. It is a six days work just as the Instauration. The first "Spenser" work The Shepherd's Calendar written not long after the Gesta Grayorum, also embodied that same pattern of symbolizing the year in microcosm, but the Epithalamion is the best example of Bacon's early experiments with his microcosms. An excellent study of this work was made by A. Hieatt in his short Time's Endless Monument. In the words of Hieatt, He found in the poem, "an unexpected, very complex, and highly integrated symbolism." More specifically there were in the poem, "two complexes of symbolism, one symbolizing the daily cycle, one the annual cycle", and the microcosmic daily cycle corresponded in all motions to the macrocosmic annual cycle.
The poem contained a total of 433 lines divided into 365 long and 68 short. It was composed of 24 parts: 23 stanzas, and an envoy of 6 lines. These 24 units were constructed in 2 pairs of 12, 1 through 12 having logical connections with 13 through 24. The units stood for both the 24 hours of the day, and the 24 Horae or sidereal hours of the year. The matching pairs of 12 stood for day and night respecitively, and at the same time, for the 12 sidereal hours while the wun is above the equator, and the 12 sidereal hours while the sun is below the equator (the day and night of organic life on earth - summer and winter). The wedding (commemorated by the poem) was on St. Barnaby's day, i.e. the summer solstice or longest day in the year. This was represented by beginning at sunrise and having night begin shortly after the beginning of the 16th stanza (representing exactly the generally accepted period for the length of the day on the summer solstice at that latitude). In summation Hieatt said:
"In terms of its allegorical mode, the demand that the Epithalamion makes upon its reader is very much like the one made by The Faerie Queene, which is that several operations should be performed simultaneously. They may be reviewed here. Spenser asks us, first of all, to do what we have always done: to attend to the shimmering surface of his marriage day. But then he asks us to see operations proceeding integrally and at length beneath that dissolving surface. We are to think of the stanzas also as Hours, the apotheosis of the hours that attend the bride and give her all that time can give. As well as on earth, they are in the heavens, and we are to think of each Hour in her poetic relation to her sister directly opposite her across the universe. One may be in light, the other may be in darkness; one prepares the chariot and horses of Phoebus each year for a space; the opposite one does the same six months later, so that in a sense they the Horae may be called daughters of Horus, the Egyptian god of the sun, attending him one at a time in his daily journeys until by the end of the year each of them has served him. We are asked to remember at each of the two great divisions of the poem two of the seasonal points, the positions of the heavens, the periods of light and darkness in which these Hours and their accompanying heavenly bodies participate, with all the 'powers which in the same remayne.' We must think of the substance of the poem as the substance of time itself-duration with its divisions-and we must see how man and the universe mirror each other, and what paradoxical boon is granted to all of us: that though we may not endure individually, our mortality and the insufficiency of us all created things is, by grace, only one aspect of a total situation of which cyclical return is the other face, until such time as time shall cease... It is one of the last great literary monuments of microcosmic-macrocosmic vision..."
Hieatt also found evidence that the arc of the poem followed the arc of the rising and declining year from the vernal equinox onward at the same time it followed the arc of the rising and declining day beginning at sunrise, and even in the body of the poem in the sentence beginning with the 103rd line (the number of days from the vernal equinox to the summer solstice). Hieatt found evidence relating this particular portion of the poem specifically to the day it commemorated.
The stanzas proper of the poem ended on the long line 359 symbolizing the 359 degrees which the sun completes in its annual movement, while the sphere of the fixed stars complete 360 degrees. At the same time Hieatt says it, "indicated the circumstance of the sun's daily journey from East to West upon which its annual journey from West to East depends; the long lines represent not simply days of the year, but also degrees of the sun's daily move- ment, from East to West, along with the other heavenly bodies." In addition to symbolizing the positions of the heavens in relation to the sun at the four seasons of the year, and the lengths of day and night at the four climactic points of the sun's annual progress, Hieatt says:
"Spenser indicates the main points of the sun's progress during the year by a system of stanza matching and contrasting refrains which indicates the positions of the starry sphere and the periods of light and darkness at those seasonal points, symbolizing simultaneously the daily and annual movements of the sun in relation to the regions of the sidereal hours in the sphere of the fixed stars, he indicates at the end of the poem that particular disparity of this relationship at the daily level which induces the annual movement, through which, in turn, the seasons and the variations in the dialy durations of light and darkness are induced. The two sets of symbolism thus correspond to each other. By all of this he signifies that microcosmic-macrocosmic consolation to which our pathetic, individual, temporal and spatial imperfection is seen as only one aspect of a paradoxical strength by which we as humans, through marriage, and generation, partake in the cyclical harmony of an according whole..."
Having developed his amazing microcosmic Intellectual Globes Bacon next developed an Intellectual Compass to be used for navigating on his Intellectual Globes. This "Dial" was as amazing as the rest of his creations because he managed to make it not just a compass, but a microcosm, a miniature model of the universe which was, at the same time, a compass, a cipher machine, a model of the diurnal and annual cycles, a model of the zodiac and zodiacal houses, a cosmic clock, and more besides.
Bacon's Intellectual Compass was composed of those basic qualities which are included in his Alphabet of Nature. But apparently it was made up only from those select ones which he referred to in his Novum Organum as the "Prerogative Natures with Respect to Investigation." These were the natures which were needed for directions while navigating on his Intellectual Globes, and they were not published until after his "death" in experiment 846 of his SYLVA SYLVARUM.
"The differences of impressible and not impressible; figurable and not figurable; mouldable and not mouldable; scissible and not scissible; and many other passions of matter, are plebeian notions, applied unto the instruments and uses which men ordinarily practise; but they are all but the effects of some of these causes following, which we will enumerate without applying them, because they would be too long.
The first is the cession or not cession of bodies into a smaller space or room, keeping the outward bulk, and not flying up. The second is the stronger or weaker appetite in bodies to continuity, and to fly discontinuity. The third is the disposition of bodies to contract, or not contract, and again, to extend, or not extend. The fourth is the small quantity of great quantity or the pneuma-tical in bodies. The fifth is the nature of the pneumatical, whether it be native spirit of the body, or common air.
The sixth is the nature of the native spirits in the body, whether they be active and eager, or dull and gentle. The seventh is the emmission or detention of the spirits in bodies. The eighth is the dilation or contraction of the spirits in bodies, while they are detained. The ninth is the collocation of the spirits in bodies; whether the collocation be equal or unequal; and again, whether the spirits be coacervate or diffused.
The tenth is the density or rarity of the tangible parts. The eleventh is the equality or inequality of the tangible parts. The thirteenth is the nature of the matter, whether sulphureous or mercurial, watery or oily, dry and terrestrial, or moist and liquid; which natures of sulphureous and mercurial, seem to be natures radical and principal. The fourteenth is the placing of the tangible parts in length, or transverse (as it is in the warp and woof of textiles); more inward or more outward. The fifteenth is the porosity or imporosity betwixt the tangible parts, and the greatness or smallness of the pores. The sixteenth is the collocation and posture of the pores. There may be more causes; but these do occur for the present."
What is highly interesting about this listing is that not only does it give 32 (16 dualities), it also gives 24 (12 dualities) since six through nine of these deals with spirits. Thus it combines 24 and 32. By combining the 24 and 32 Bacon was able to combine the alphabet (his alphabet of nature) and compass. In addition, his bi-literal cipher used 24 out of 32, so he could combine these also. In connection with the compass wheel and the alphabet this list would be set out as follows:
1 1 A Cession B Not Cession 1 17 2 18 2 2 C Continuity D Not Continuity 3 19 3 3 E Contracting F Not Contracting 4 20 4 4 G Pneumatic H Not Pneumatic 5 21 5 5 I Native Spirits K Not Native Spirits 6 22 6 I Active Spirits K Not Active Spirits 7 23 7 Emission of Spirits Not Emission of Spirits 8 24 8 Dilation of Spirits Not Dilation of Spirits 9 25 K Collation of Spirits K 10 L Density M Not Density 11 27 11 7 N Equality O Not Equality 12 28 12 8 P Digestion Q Not Digestion 13 29 13 9 R Sulphureous S Not Sulphureous 14 30 14 10 T Inward U Not Inward 15 31 15 11 V Porosity X Not Porosity 16 32 16. 12 Y Collocation X Not Collocation
Not Dilation of Spirits
Not Native Spirits
Not Active Spirits
Emission of Spirits
Not Emission of Spirits
Dilation of Spirits
Not Dilation of Spirits
Collation of Spirits
So that the compass wheel would be set out as follows:
But the wheel actually only has 24 division so it would also be set out as follows:
and since 12 out of the 24 are negatives, the wheel is also a small model of the diurnal cycle showing the 12 hours of light and the hours of darkness, and a small model of the annual cycle showing the 12 sidereal hours while the sun is above the equator, and the 12 sidereal hours while the sun is below the equator.
In addition, the wheel can serve as a zodiacal model since there are 12 houses, each composed of 2 hours. And so on, and so on. This wheel also takes us from the Schematisms of nature all the way up the pyramid of nature to the forms which were the object of Bacon's inquiry. This is true since each Schematism of nature has a corresponding simple motion represented by the natures of which the wheel or dial is composed. In order to understand this, however, we must go into Bacon's system of his Great Instauration in some considerable detail.
The Scheme of the Great Instauration
In accordance with the peculiar, multi-faceted significance of his Great Instauration Bacon set the scheme entire out in six stages:The Division of The Sciences
1.The New Organum (The New Machine for the Intellect)
2.The Phenomena of The Universe
3.The Ladder of The Intellect
5. Anticipations of the New Philosophy
6.The New Philosophy
The scheme was divided into two distinct parts:
With the exceptions of some introductory material not a single work remains to represent the second half of the Instauration, on the other hand, Bacon had candidly expressed his intention of concealing the second half.
Works by Bacon pertaining to the first stage of his Instauration are the Advancement of Learning (1605), and the De Augmentis (1623). These books are broken down into two parts:
Part I - a survey of the history, progress and defects of learning.
Part II- a dissection setting forth an anatomy of learning; listing all of its divisions, and indicating, as the dissection proceeds, which are deficient.
In the Advancement Bacon divides the work into two books, one book devoted to each of the two parts. In De Augmentis he retains the first book of the Advancement as devoted to Part I, but devotes an additional eight books to his dissection of the various divisions of learning. Bacon's anatomy of learning gives the key to his scientific system.
Under Nature (Natural Philosophy) He has the division of Natural Science, and Magic (Natural Prudence). Natural Science is concerned strictly with the Inquisition of Causes. Magic (Natural Prudence) is concerned with the production of effects.
Under Natural Science Bacon has Physics the Inquiry into Efficients and Matter; and, Metaphysics the Inquiry into Forms and Final Causes.
Physics is divided into three
1.Principles of Things
2.Structures of Things
3.Varieties of Things
Only in Varieties of Things does Bacon proceed into further division. This is split into Concretes and Abstracts, and under each Bacon has further divisions. These are the gears and cog wheels of Bacon's mechanisim of Natural Science. Bacon uses the analogy of a pyramid to describe the structure of knowledge. At the bottom are particulars in nature; these ascend to Schematisms of Matter (i.e., slightly higher generalities); ascend again to simple motions (the next higher order of generalities) and then to the inquiry into forms and final causes.
The idea of "forms" was extremely important in Bacon's scientific scheme. For Bacon the form of a thing was "the very thing itself... the existential." "We would not", Bacon says, "be understood to speak of abstract forms and ideas, either not determined in matter at all, or ill defined. For when we speak of forms we mean nothing more than those laws and determinations of pure actuality which order and constitute any simple nature as heat, light, weight, in every kind of matter and subject that is susceptible of them. Thus the form of heat or the form of light is the same thing as the law of heat, or the law of light." The form of a nature, according to Bacon was such that, given the form, the nature infallibly followed. The form was always present when the nature was present and always absent when it was absent. Although it would be easy to equate Bacon's concept of the "Alphabet of Nature" with his concept for "forms", the two are quite distinct and should not be confused.
Once the highest level of the pyramid was attained the operative function of science was exercised through a scale of descent. For Bacon, Natural Science (the inquisition of causes) dealt with the ascent of the pyramid, while Natural Magic (the production of effects) dealt with the descent of the pyramid, once Natural Science had accomplished its office in the mechanism of knowledge.
Bacon divided the contemplative part of science into two divisions:
1. Physics, dealing with the discovery of the latent process and latent conformation of schemes of matter.
2. Metaphysics, dealing with the inquiry into forms and discovering the true difference of a given nature and the operative function of science followed these divisions:
1. The method referable of physics which proceeds by concrete bodies and works through latent processes whose end is the transformation of concrete bodies from one to another.
2. The method referable to metaphysics whereby a body is regarded as a combination of simple natures or forms and the end is to superinduce a new nature or form upon a given body.
In his De Principiis Atque Originbus Bacon remarked:
"...seeing there are such armies of contraries in the world as dense and rare, hot and cold..."
indicating these should be classed as polarities and something would be dense or rare depending on the strength or weakness of its originating simple motion, and hot or cold depending on its originating simple motion, and so on for the other schematisims of matter. This can be seen clearly in the De Augmentis where Bacon sets out 19 simple motions and 19 pairs of qualities of the Schematisms of Matter indicating that the latter had their arising from the former.
When he came to formulate his Intellectual Compass Bacon selected these so they would fit in with his scheme of an Intellectual Compass and an Intellectual Globe, and the other particulars of his remarkable system.
Stage two of the Instauration was the Novum Organum (New Machine). It had eleven parts:
1.Presentation of Instances to the Understanding
2.Indulgence of the Understanding, or the commencement of Interpretation, or the First Vintage
4.Of the Supports of Induction
5.Of the Correction of Induction
6.Of Varying the Investigation according to the Nature of the Subject
7.Of the Prerogative Natures with Respect to Investigation
8.Of the Limits of Investigation, or a Synopsis of All Natures that Exist in the Universe
9.Of the Application to Practical Purposes, or What Relates to Man
10.Of the Preparations for Investigation
11.Of the Ascending and Descending Scale of Axions
Bacon illustrated part 1 and 2 by investigating Heat. He began with four tables. Three of these were what he called Tables of Review whose purpose was to present instances to the understanding:
1.A Table of Essence and Presence - a compilation of instances in which the nature was presence
2.A Table composed of instances in which the nature was present (Since an unrestricted list would be infinite Bacon said that this table must be composed in such a manner that it was listed under the headings of the instances included in table 1, thus he called it a table of absence in proximity.)
3.A Table composed of instances in which the nature was present in varying degrees.
Following the three Tables of Review a fourth was composed which was called the Table of Exclusion. The function of this table was to exclude natures not found in those instances where heat was present or found in those natures where heat was absent, or where it was found to decrease when heat increased. The next step was to proceed to affirmation. After this came a first attempt at an interpretation based on the tables. This was the "Indulgence of the Understanding, or First Vintage."
Based on the instances in his tables Bacon inferred heat was a species of motion. He refined this to, "Heat is a motion, expansive, restrained, and acting in its strife upon the smaller particles of bodies," and qualified, "while it expands all ways, yet it is turned somewhat upward." The struggle through the parts was also qualified, "it is not at all sluggish but rapid and with some violence." This was his theoretical definition. Bacon next proceeded to his Operative definition, "If in any natural body, you can excite a self=dilating or expanding motion, and can so repress this motion and turn it upon itself, that the dilation shall not proceed equably, but shall prevail in one part and be repulsed in another, you will undoubtedly generate heat."
Bacon turned next to Prerogative Instances which, "make a way through pathless areas and cut a direct road, as it were, across windings and turnings in nature, thus abridging investingation." There are 27 categories of these. Bacon goes into each in detail. At this point, however, the Novum Organum breaks off, and the following divisions are not covered
A portion of the New Organum was published in 1620, but Bacon never completed it. It seems odd he did not. In 1621 he was cast out of his office as Lord Chancellor. Freed from official duties, his next five years were astonishingly prolific, but he did not return to the New Organum at all despite it's importance for his scientific scheme. Instead, he wrote a biography of King Henry VIIth, and spent his time working on the third part of his Instauration. Why? The answer is obvious. For one reason, Henry VIIth was missing from his chronology of English Kings covered in his history plays under the name of Shakespeare. For another, Bacon intended to withhold the remainder for private transmission. In his Of the Interpretation of Nature, he says:
"Now for my plan of publication those parts of the work which have it for their object to find out and bring into correspondence such minds as are prepared and disposed for the argument, and to purge the floors of men's understandings, I wish to be published to the world and circulate from mouth to mouth: the rest I would have passed from hand to hand, with selection and judgment. Not but I know that it is an old trick of impostors to keep a few of their follies back from the publich which are indeed no better than those they put forward: but in this case it is no imposture at all, but a sober foresight , which tells me that the formula itself of inter-pretation, and the discoveries made by the same, will thrive better if committed to the charge of some fit and selected minds, and kept private. This however is other peoples's concern."
We don't have the remainder of the Novum Organum because Bacon never intended to make all of it public. He is completely candid about this. He only intended to publish enough of it to show those was were open to the idea exactly how his New Machine was structured. And it is quite amazing that scholars of Bacon have not seen this. The remainder of his exposition on the Novum Organum was turned over to a private group for circulation.
The third stage of the Great Instauration was covered by the various histories such as:
Of the Ebb and Flow of the Sea* History of Winds* History of Life and Death* History of Dense and Rare*History of Sympathy and Antipathy of Things* History of Sulphur, Mercury and Salt *History of Heat and Cold* History and First Investigation of Sound and Hearing
We need not linger over this part of the Instauration.
The second half of the Instauration consisted of:
3. The Ladder of The Intellect
4. The Forerunners; or Anticipations of The New Philosophy
5. The New Philosophy
Part 4 consisted of models demonstrating the operation of Bacon's New Machine for the discovery of Arts and Sciences. Part 5 were discoveries Bacon had made through the use of his own powers without the aid of his New Machine for the Intellect. Part 6 was to be the result of future collective effort. In the Novum Organum Bacon stressed the importance of the 4th part for his Instauration, and continually spoke of both it and the 5th part as if they were something already accomplished. It has generally been assumed Bacon proceeded with his work on the varous parts of his Instauration in the same order as he lists the parts in that work. Actually he had devised his New Machine at a very early age.* The order in which he completed the parts of his Instauration was just the reverse of what is generally believed. In his earliest extant philosophical work the Masculine Birth of Time he is concerned with devising an effective method for transmitting the new knowledge he has already discovered:
"A new method must be found for quiet entry into minds so choked and overgrown. Frenzied men are exacerbated by violent opposition, but may be beguiled by art. This give us a hint how we should proceed in this universal madness. Do you really think it is easy to provide the favourable conditions required for the legiti-mate passing on of knowledge? The method must be mild and afford no occasion of error. It must have in it an inherent power of winning support and a vital principle which will stand up against the ravages of time, so that the tradition of science may mature and spread like some lively vigorous vine. Then also science must be such as to select her followers, who must be worthy to be adopted into her family. This is what must be provided. Whether I can manage it or not the future must decide."
* A letter written to Father Fulgentius in 1625 indicates that He had already perfected this while still in his teens. If this seems unbelievable it should be remembered that the greatest genuises, such as Newton, did their major work at an early age.
The salient points of Bacon's legitimate method of Delivery are:
1. It must be fashioned so as to select its own followers.
2. It must have an inherent power of winning support.
3. It must have a vital principle which will resist the ravages of time.
4. It must provide a quiet entrance into minds choked and overgrown.
and he takes care at various places in his writings to give an exact description of how each of these is to be effected. Bacon's divisions of learning reveal a meticulously planned system. The role of delivery in this system must be carefully noted. He divides his method for delivering knowledge into two parts:
Doctrinal concerns existing knowledge. Existing methods of delivering knowledge will suffice for existing knowledge, says Bacon, but new knowledge requires a new method,- the Initiative. He takes his "Initiative" designation from the Ancient Mystery Religions, and the Initiate Tradition. In this tradition knowledge was imparted only to a select few who (after oaths of secrecy, and by virtue of special abilities) was given training allowing them to make a "beginning" into the new knowledge. Hence Initiate from the Latin for beginning. Bacon calls this the True Method for Sons of Science. He says for knowledge to have a form where it can continue to grow, it ought to be delivered and intimated, if possible, in the same form wherein it was invented. There is a diversity of method, he adds, which has some affinity with this:
"This concealed or enigmatical method was itself also employed by the ancients with prudence and judgment, but is of late dishonored by many, who use it as a false light to set off their counterfeit wares. The design of it seems to have been, by the veil of tradition to keep the vulgar from the secrets of sciences, and to admit only such as had, by the help of a master, attained to the interpretation of dark sayings, or were able, by the strength of their own genius to enter with the veil."
Bacon touches on this also in the Valerius Terminus of The Interpretation of Nature:
"That the discretion anciently observed, though by the precedent of many vain persons and deceivers disgraced, of publishing part, and reserving part to a private succession, and of publishing in a manner whereby it shall not be to the capacity nor taste of all, but shall as it were single and adopt his reader, is not to be laid aside, both for the avoiding of abuse in the excluded, and the strengthening of affection in the admitted."
This is what he had in mind by a method fashioned to select its own followers; one having an inherent power of winning support. He flags the masterpieces of literature he was creating with his, "vital principle which will stand up against the ravages of time" for He says elsewhere: "We see then how far the monuments of wit and learning are more durable than the monuments of power or of the hands. For have not the verses of Homer continued twentyfive hundred years or more, without the loss of a syllable or letter; during which time infinite palaces, temples, castles, cities, have been decayed and destroyed?"
and the point: "It must provide a quiet entrance into minds choked and overgrown" is made plain in his preface to The Wisdom of The Ancients when describing how the ancients used parables to wrap up and envelope as well as to illustrate and instruct he says:
"And even to this day, if any man would let new light in upon the human understanding, and conquer prejudice, without raising con-tests, animosities, opposition, or disturbance, he must still go in the same path, and have recourse to the like method of allegory, metaphor and allusion."
It is difficult to see how Bacon could have been more candid about his intentions. Open disclosure of the knowledge he wished to give mankind only provoked ridicule and opposition; fixed the knowledge in its delivered state discouraging further development; and opened it to "the abuse of vulgar wits." He could have published the new knowledge concealed under allegory under his own name, but he would have lain himself open to contest, animosities, and opposition.
Some would have said there was nothing there, that it was just a device to add luster to his counterfeit wares. Others would have invented knowledge into the works which did not exist at all. By masking his works this know- ledge could find a quiet entrance into the minds of men. Most would read them for their entertainment value, but some few would perceive the key and be led to further investigation. In order to ensure the preservation of the works, Bacon deliberately constructed them as great masterpieces of literature.
He reasoned his method would have an inherent power of winning support. Those who discerned the key would take pride in their accomplishment that through their ability they had became a member of the elect. The very principle of vanity would ensure that in time some would reveal their accomplishment and eventually the knowledge would become known to mankind. The delay would serve the further purpose that, during the interim, mankind would collect sufficient quantities of the raw material of histories which would be processed via the New Machine for the Intellect when that machine was at last revealed.
What does Bacon tell us specifically about the exact nature of the "Masked" works? We can answer this by collating his various statements about parts four and five of his Great Instauration.
The stray remarks he lets drop regarding part 4 are certainly curious. In the Novum Organum he says:
"Moreover, since there is so great a number and army of particulars, and that army so scattered and dispersed as to distract and confound the understanding, little is to be hoped for from the skirmishings and slight attacks and desultory movements of the intellect, unless all the particulars which pertain to the subject of inquiry shall, by means of Tables of Discovery, apt, well arranged, and as it were animate, be drawn up and marshalled; and the mind be set to work upon the helps duly prepared and digested which these tables supply."
This, "and as it were animate" is certainly a curious description for these tables. Another passage strengthens this impression. The work Thoughts and Conclusions (Cogitata et Visa) was written by Bacon in 1607. It was published in 1653 by Isaac Gruter at Leyden. Spedding found a manuscript copy in 1857 in the library at Oxford with passages which had been omitted from Gruter's print. Bacon said that,
"...he thought best, after long considering the subject and weighing it carefully, first of all to prepare Tabulae Inveniendi or regular forms of inquiry; in other words, a mass of particulars arranged for the understanding, and to serve, as it were, for an example and almost visible representation of the matter,"
then a couple of sentences later comes that curious passage which had been omitted from the Leyden publication:
"But when these Tabulae Inveniendi have been put forth and seen, he does not doubt that the more timid wits will shrink almost in despair from imitating them with productions with other materials or on other subjects; and they will take so much delight in the specimen given that they will miss the precepts in it. Still, many will be led to inquire into the real meaning and highest use of these writings, and to find the key to their interpretation, and thus more ardently desire, in some degree at least, to acquire the new aspect of nature which such a key will reveal."
In his preface to the Instauration, Bacon gives further information concerning these curious Tabulae Inveniendi:
"...the first is to set forth examples of inquiry and invention according to my method, exhibited by anticipation in some parti-cular subjects; choosing such subjects as are at once the most noble in themselves among these under inquiry, and most different one from another; that there may be an example in every kind. I do not speak of those examples which are joined to the several precepts and rules by way of illustration ( for of these I have given plenty in the second part of the work); but I mean actual types and models, by which the entire process of the mind and the whole fabric and order of invention from the beginning to the end, in certain subjects, and those various and remarkable, should be set as it were before the eyes. For I remember that in the mathematics it is easy to follow the demonstration when you have a machine beside you; whereas without that help all appears involved and more subtle than it really is. To examples of this kind,- being in fact nothing more than an application of the second part in detail and at large,- the fourth part of the work is devoted."
Bacon gives further information on the fourth part in the Novum Organum:
"by far the greatest obstacle to the progress of science and to the undertaking of new tasks and provinces therein, is found in this--that men despair and think things impossible...The strongest means of inspiring hope will be to bring men to particulars, especially to particulars digested and arranged in my Tables of Discovery (the subject partly of the second, but much more of the fourth part of my Instauration) since this is not merely the promise of the thing but the thing itself."
Near the end of his philosophical work THOUGHTS AND CONCLUSIONS Bacon tells us the work was written as an introduction to the fourth part of his Instauration. It was for that purpose, and that purpose alone "that every word of it was written." He then goes on to give a passage telling exactly why the title Ladder of the Intellect was chosen as a title. He says that after the material which is necessary for the intellect to work upon has been collected from nature: "Further material collected should be sorted into orderly Tables, so that the understanding may work upon it and thus accomplish its appropriate task. After the particulars have been arranged in Tables, there should be no immediate hurry to press on with the collection of new facts, although collecting facts is a useful thing and is the equivalent of what might be called 'literate experience.' For the time has now come to ascend to generalisations. The understanding is endowed by nature with an evil impulse to jump from particulars to the highest axioms (what are called First Principles). This impulse must be held in check; but generalisations lying close to the facts may first be made, then generalisations of a middle sort, and progress thus achieved up the successive rungs of a genuine ladder of the intellect."
So we know the fourth part will consist of almost animate models which will entertain and will be such amazing works of art that men may shrink almost in despair from imitating them. We know we will be dealing with an ascension of the pyramid of nature. We know the New Machine for the Intellect will be used in connection with this ascension. We know this machine will guide the mind in its ascension up the ladder of the intellect just as a ruler or a compass guides the hand in drawing a straight line, or a circle.
Bacon said he would choose "such subjects as are at once the most noble in themselves among those under inquiry and most different one from another; that there may be an example in every kind." He even names some of the subjects he would choose. In the Novum Organum he says:
"It may also be asked (in the way of doubt rather than of objection) whether I speak of natural philosophy only or whether I mean that the other sciences, logic, ethics, and politics, should be carried on by this method. Now I certainly mean what I have said to be understood of them all; and as the common logic, which governs by the syllogism, extends not only to natural but to all sciences; so does mine also, which proceeds by induction, embrance everything. For I form a history and tables of discovery for anger, fear, shame, and the like; for matters political; and again for the mental operations of memory, composition and division, judgment and the rest; not less than for heat and cold, or light, or vegetation, or the like."
It is interesting that Bacon specifically designates anger, fear and shame as subjects he will analyze in his "animate" models because, if the plays are examined carefully, it will be seen Lear, Macbeth, and Coriolanus are actually model tables of discovery demonstrating inquiries into the nature of anger, fear and shame respecitively.
In Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes Lily Campbell demonstrated Lear and Macbeth were treatises on Anger and Fear respectively, "analysed in accordance with the medical and philosophical teaching of the period." The Tragedy of King Lear provides an arrangement of "Tables of Discovery", apt, well arranged, and as it were animate, whereby a character particularly subject to the inherent disposition of anger* allows us to see the ascent up the pyramid of knowledge (through his * In the play, Lear is depicted as a very old man, and Campbell brings out the point that, according to the medical and philosophical teachings of the period, extreme old age was particularly subject to the inherent disposition of anger.being subject to all manner of disturbances) to the point where the form of anger is disclosed. What is the form of anger? Bacon himself, drawing from the stoics, had defined it, "anger is a short madness." When Lear goes mad the form of anger is disclosed. From this point the descent to operations is effected whereby Lear is cured. Macbeth follows the same process with fear. Courage, the polar opposite of fear is rulership of self. Fear is absence of rulership of self. The King personifies rulership. When the King is murdered in the play the form of fear is disclosed. At this point Macbeth is deluged with the very essence of fear.
Coriolanus follows the same process with Shame. Shame is defined as public disgrace. In Coriolanus the hero is depicted as one with a particularly haughty spirit who is subject to a constant public disgrace, finally even to the point of the necessity of the public pleading of his cause with the vulgar masses. The form of shame is disclosed with the ostracism of Coriolanus. The form of shame is alienation from the social mother.
* In the Novum Organum Bacon says:
"For as in ordinary life every person's disposition, and the concealed feelings of the mind and passions are most drawn out when they are disturbed-so the secrets of nature betray themselves more readily when tormented by art than when left to their own course.
J. Leed Barrolls points to what he terms "the poet's normal way of working." This "way of working" Barrolls claims, consists of subjecting a character to all manner of distrubances and stimili proddings and merely following the course of the reactions to these bombardments. Barrolls points out that Hamlets madness (whether feigned or not) allows the opportunity for displaying random activity to stimili just as did the madness of Lear. Vide: Shakespeare Studies, Vol. VII, Structure in Shakespearean Tragedy.
Barrolls also points out that graphically the Shakespearean dramas would have the form of a pyramid. Beyond the discovery of the "form" Baconian analysis had the "Final cause" as its ultimate object.
The final cause of anger in man was the innate disorder in man which had resulted from the Fall. King Lear presented a comprehensive allegory of the Fall of Man with the various characters personifying the various aspects of man's psyche, and the drama showing "en vitro" the entire internal drama involved in the Fall. Fear was defined in a book attributed by Baconians to Bacon as "sorrow for anticipated evil." Thus, the "final cause" of fear is evil. The metaphysical allegory in Macbeth dealt with the Nature of Evil. Bacon's answer was strange indeed; Evil was produced by superhuman, extraterrestrial influences and was cyclical like seasonal influences. The final cause of shame was the inability of an organism to effect transference from one supraordinate organism to another. Coriolanus' problem was his mother fixation. He failed in his transference from mother to State, and, after being ostrasized, from State to another State.
Bacon said he would set forth "actual types and models, by which the entire process of the mind and the whole fabric and order of invention from the beginning to the end, in certain subjects, and these various and remarkable, would be set, as it were, before the eyes." The Tempest is just such a model. In order to follow the operation of Bacon's analysis model in The Tempest one needs only to be equipped with three prerequisites. These are:
1.The subject of the analysis
2.An understanding of the allegory in The Tempest
3.An understanding of the mechanism of the discovery device
1. The Subject of the Analysis
Bacon said he would choose as subjects for his analysis models those "at once the most noble in themselves among those under inquiry and the most different one from another; that there may be an example in every kind." For Bacon the subject which took precedence among all others was the Advancement of Learning. He, therefore, chose as the subject of the first play in the Folio the existing state of the Advancement of Learning. The "form" (disclosed by Bacon's analysis) of the existing state of the Advancement of Learning was a tempest. That is, the essence of the effort to discover sciences in Bacon's day was not scientific method, not diligence guided by knowledge and science, as it should have been, but chaotic activity alone.
The "final cause" was illusion. The allegory in The Tempest shows the entire structure of man's world permeated with illusion. An illusion divided into the three major idols, or illusionary images, which Bacon said beset the human mind. This is allegorized by having the passengers, following the shipwreck, separate into three groups following three streams of action, leading ultimately to three illusionary scenes depicting the three respective idols. But the nature of illusion in the play goes beyond this: it is the basic quality of the world because it is the method by which deity works His will upon the course of human events.
2. The Allegory in The Tempest
The main allegory is obvious. Bacon had stressed the dire straits of the existing state of the Advancement of Learning. Human Power and Human Knowledge must be united to be effective, but Human Power has developed an enmity for Human Knowledge, and has banished it. The beginning of the play allegorizes the result. The Ship of Discovery is in danger of shipwreck. The crew struggles desperately to save it, but are powerless (they represent mechanical arts which can maintain but not increase knowledge). The King (Human Power) rules the ship of discovery, but without Human Knowledge he is powerless. The words of the boatswain emphasize this:
"What cares these roarers for the name of king?"
In Bacon's system the scientist is the magician who works his art upon the particular in nature which is to be analyzed. To represent this analysis the symbolism has the scientist and the particular in nature coming together through the will or magic of the magician. In the allegory of The Tempest this is accomplished by having the ship of discovery drawn to Prospero through his magical power.
Bacon said, "toward the effecting of works all that men can do is put together, or put asunder natural bodies." and added, "a separation and solution of bodies, therefore, is to be effected not by fire indeed, but rather by reasoning and true induction..." The allegory depicts the particular in nature (the sailing ship of discovery) as composed of a number of natures (symbolized by the characters aboard ship, which personify these natures). Just as the natures which compose a particular in nature, form one whole until they are separated through the scientific analysis of the scientist (who, in Bacon's scheme, is the magician), so the characters aboard the ship are combined in one group until Prospero draws them to him through his magical power. Then they are separated. Not, as Bacon says, through the fire of the furnace, but through the intellectual fire. They leap overboard and swim away in their separate directions from the ship. The intellectual fire is depicted by Ariel's simulation of St. Elmo's fire throughout the masts of the ship.
In order to follow the allegory we must know what natures the characters represent. Bacon provides a key in the De Augmentis. He says, "The justest division of human learning is that derived from the three different faculties of the soul, the seat of learning, History being relative to the memory, poetry to the imagination, and philosophy to the reason." A little later in the same work he says, "The faculties of the soul are well known; viz., the understanding, reason, imagination, memory, appetite, will and all those wherein logic and ethics are concerned."
Bacon follows the general ideas in Renaissance writings on the divisions of the tripartite soul set forth in such works as The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), Batman uppon Bartholome (1582), Sir John Davies' Nosce Teipsum (1599), Philippe de Mornay's The True Knowledge of a Mans Owne Selfe (1602), and Pierre de la Primaudaye's The French Academy. Therefore, it is not very difficult to reconstruct an anatomy of the soul of man as Bacon applies it in The Tempest, and this anatomy supplies the requisite key for The Tempest:
Apparently it is not without reason that there is such a close agreement. The Baconians claim that Bacon was the author of both The Anatomy of Melancholy, and of The French Academy. In my opinion, after reviewing their evidence, there are good reasons for their claims.
Anatomy of The Soul of Man as Used in The Tempest with The Corresponding Cast of Characters:
Adrian & Francisco
The Anatomy applies both to the microcosm of the individual, and, by correspondence to the macrocosm also. For instance, Human Power obviously corresponds to the will, while Human Knowledge corresponds to the understanding, and Human Industry to the moving faculty of the Sensitive Soul. The office of the understanding is to take data received from the outside by the senses, evaluate the data, and, based on this evaluation, guide the will so it directs the Sensitive Soul, and thence the moving faculty, in taking the appropriate action based on the rational analysis of the data received.
Unfortunately man's tripartite soul does not always function as it was designed. Due to The Fall, there is a persistent tendency in the soul to short-circuit. Either the will by passes the Understanding faculty, impelling the moving faculty directly, or the Sensitive Soul collects and processes the data as it should, but then by passes the rational soul altogether and sends the data directly to the moving faculty of the Sensitive Soul. Thus the passions (with no control by the judgment of reason, or the moral choice of will) are aroused by what is pleasurable or what is painful, not by what is true or false, good or bad, and direct action accordingly.
It is appropriate that Bacon makes the moving faculty the son of the will since will produces motion. Likewise the nilling faculty of the understanding is brother to the will. Also certain characters appear more than once in the anatomy because there is a correspondence of qualities which runs through parts of the divisions.
Alonso who represents human power is obviously the Will while Gonzalo who affirms everything is Willing, and Antonio who denies everything is Willing. These are both important features in human learning because any quest of discovery into the essential natures which compose some particular proceeds by this twofold process:
1.The process of affirmation or inclusion of the natures which pertain to the subject under analysis utilizing the faculty of willing, and
2.The process of denying or exclusion of natures which do not pertain to the particular under analysis using the faculty of willing.
Prospero (famed for liberal arts) is obviously Human Knowledge, and equates with Understanding. Under him we see Memory (Caliban); Imagination (Ariel), and Reason or Science, which is Miranda.
After the natures comprising the particular have been separated they must be shown in the allegory as being subjected to some influence from the magician which operates upon them to change their basic nature since Bacon's science operates by separating the particular into the simple natures or forms which constitute it, then superinducing the desired changes upon these forms, and recombining them to make the particular which has the desired changes incorporated into it.
We see this in the play. Gonzalo, who affirms everything is operated upon so he becomes more critical in his affirmation. Antonio is operated upon so he becomes more critical in his denial. Alonso is reconciled and bound to Prospero, and the ambition of Sebastian is instructed to seek better ends through the device of the illusory feast.
The characters or natures which
were together at the beginning of the play and were separated and
operated upon to have basic natures changed are brought together
again at the end of the play to form the changed particular in
-An Understanding of the Mechanism of the Discovery Device
-We know Bacon said the Fourth Part of his Instauration would deal with his Tables of Discovery. We know these are described in his Novum Organum because, referring to these tables, Bacon had said: "the substance partly of the second, but more of the fourth part of my Insauration."
Therefore, there are four tables:
1. The Table of Presence
2. The Table of Absence in Proximity
3. The Table of Variance or Degrees
4. The Table of Exclusion
They will be used in connection with a "dial". This dial will be a compass
dial with 32 divisions or directions. Obviously the division of matter in the play will be correlated in some fashion with this dial. We want to know what direction the dial begins with, and how this correlation is effected. These are easy to determine since we are told where NBW is, and the NBW reading is downward indicating that we should see some division of the matter in the play beginning from the AT in the message "SIT THE DIAL AT NBW" is within the 32nd speech from the beginning of the play. If North (which is indeed the logical beginning point for the dial) is used as the beginning point than the 32nd direction is NBW. Therefore, we know the speeches in the play give the division and the correlation is between the speeches and the directions of the compass dial, and the beginning point for the dial is North. The pattern of the message also indicates it should be read going in the opposite direction as WBN. WBN is the 26th direction on a compass dial. Obviously the count cannot be from the end of the play, since there would be hundreds of speeches. This also rules out the end of the Act, and the end of the Scene. The next logical point would be the end of the page. If we count the speeches from the end of the page in the First Folio backward to the AT in the message we get a count of exactly 26.
I have already pointed out that the pattern of the message indicates it should be read as follows:
What does this mean? The answer seems to be that Bacon has given a dual coordinate correlation so the hypothetical arrangement of letters in the compass wheel can be definitely and precisely established. He tells us if if we use two wheels and set the dial to NBW on the first, and WBN on the second that AI will equate to the NBW setting, and AO will equate to the WBN setting. A glance at the two wheels on the facing page shows it does. In addition, his message reiterates the NBW in column two just to make it definite that the AI refers to NBW.
The message is more subtle than this, however. The direction: NBW is the last direction on the "dial" and therefore indicates the end. But does it merely indicate the end of the "dial" or does it indicate something more? The next important point we would want indicated for us would naturally be the beginning and termination of each table, and the termination of all four tables because at that point the analysis and induction process would begin again. The tables having been completed the process of the "First Vintage" as Bacon called it, would then begin. The simplest arrangement would be to have each table cover exactly 32 speeches. This would allow for all the variations in the dial of perogative natures and would make it easy to follow the beginning and termination of each table. If this were so then NBW would naturally indicate the last speech in the first table, and we should expect to have some indication of the end of all four of the tables. That is, the tables would proceed through 32 x 4 or 128 divisions, and following the 128th speech the process would begin again with the "First Vintage." If the play is examined carefully, one will see this is exactly what Bacon did. The The 129th speech is as follows:
S Some God O' the island, sitting on a bank,
V VVeeping againe the King my Fathers wracke,
T This Musick crept by me upon the waters,
A Allaying both their fury, and my passion
V VVith it's sweet ayre: thence I have follow'd it Or it hath drawn merather; but 'tis gone.
N No, it begins againe.
In Elizabethan times W's were often composed of two V's, and U's and V's were interchangeable. The message is NOVATUS (Latin: it begins again) and is also repeated in the text of the speech. So Bacon has given clear verification for the hypothetical arrangement of the tables.
So now we have the data we need to set out an analysis of the speeches in each of the four tables. It may be observed that the Ship Master, the Mariners, and the Boatswain are merely generic rather than proper name characters in the first table and therefore are not properly to be included in the natures separated through the analysis.
This is further supported by the fact that they do not leave the ship. That is, they are not separated:
TABLE OF TABLE OF TABLE OF TABLE OF PRESENCE ABSENCE IN DEGREES EXCLUSION (Speeches PROXIMITY (Speeches (Speeches 1 thru 32) 33 thru 64) 65 thru 96) 97 thru 128)
Speeches Speeches Speeches Speeches
Mariners 1 Miranda 16 Miranda 3 Miranda 3 Alonso 1 Prospero 16 Ariel 13 Caliban 6 Ship Master 2 -- Prospero 16 Ariel 8 Prospero 2 32 -- Prospero 15 Miranda 2 32 -- Sebastian 3 32 Antonio 4 Gonzalo 7 Boatswain 10 -- 32
This already gives us a very telling point. Human knowledge(Prospero) includes under it the categories of Reason (Miranda),Imagination (Ariel), and Memory (Caliban), and it can easily be seen that since they are sub headings under Prospero, the sum of their speeches within each table always adds up to the number of speeches made by Prospero:
Table of Presence:
Table of Absence in Proximity:
Table of Degrees:
(Another very telling point in Table three is that Miranda goes to sleep before Ariel appears and then awakens after he has gone. The point being that Reason and Imagination are mutually exclusive. Reason always sleeps when Imagination is active.)
Table of Exclusion:
(Although Table four seems to be a contradiction of the point it is actually an exceptionally striking verification, as well as an example which shows the need to use the original in the First Folio. One of the speeches which fall within Table four is set out as follows in the First Folio):
Prospero : Oh, was the fo: I muft Once in a moneth recount what thou haft bin, Which thou forgetft. this damn'd witch Sycorax For mifchiefes manifold, and foceries terrible To enter humane hearing, from Argier Thou know'ft was banifh'd:for one thing fhe did They wold not take her life:Is not this true? AR. I,Sir.
Of course, all the modern editions take this as an error and correct it to show the "AR. I,Sir. as a separate speech. But this was done with deliberate intent in the First Folio since the inclusion of Ariel's speech under Prospero means we should add it to Prospero's speeches as
There are many such "errors" in the First Folio all assiduously corrected by the "learned" modern editors. There is one other point which needs to be covered before considering the analysis Tables in more detail. We know the significance of the NBW, but exactly what is the sifnificance of the WBN? Consider, exactly what does one do in using the dial? One accomplishes a dual process, one part of which is just the inverse of the other. The first process is one of inclusion. One determines what natures are included in the particular being analyzed. The inclusion process has covered the entire range of the 32 variations on the dial. But the second process is the inverse process, which is just the opposite, the process of exclusion, and has discovered 26 variations on the dial. Therefore subtract the 26 from the 32, and we get six which should be the number of the natures separated out by the analysis process. The crew are excluded from this process. Looking at the detail of Table One we see the following:
This is the reason for having the inverse direction - to indicate that six natures were separated out in using the dial on Table One. The next thing we want to do is consider the four tables from the view of following the process of analyzing the existing state of the Advancement of Learning in order to determine the form of that existing state. In the Table of Presence we see Antonio (Human Power), Gonzalo (Willing), Antonio (Willing), Sebastian (Ambition), Prospero (Human Knowledge), and Miranda (Reason). Prospero and Miranda, however, are shown as standing apart, and merely looking on while taking no part in the frantic activities aboard ship. There, in the second table, The Table of Absence in Proximity, they are shown as being found to be absent from the form of the existing state of the Advancement of Learning. In the third table, The Table of Degrees, Prospero, Ariel, and Miranda are shown as instances in which the existing state of the Advancement of Learning are present in varying degrees. The degree is greatest with Prospero or knowledge; a little less with Ariel or Imagination, and least of all with Miranda or Reason. Therefore in the fourth table, The Table of Exclusion, Prospero (knowledge), Ariel (Imagination), and Miranda (Reason), are excluded from the form of the existing state of the Advancement of Learning, as well as Caliban (Memory). As i is, the form of the existing state of the Advancement of Learning does not include knowledge, imagination, reason, or even memory. They do not even learn from experience.
Precisely at this point (in the 129th speech) Ferdinand appears. What does Ferdinand represent? He is the form of the existing state of the Advancement of Learning. The name Ferdinand means to be bold, to venture onward. And that is just what he represents. He is movement, activity. For the existing state of the Advancement of Learning is a Tempest, and the "form" of a Tempest is chaotic activity, which is all that is left after knowledge, imagination, reason, and memory or experience are excluded.
But knowledge (Prospero) is not percipitous in his conclusion. Before definitely establishing his "First Vintage" he will put Ferdinand to a task. Reason (Miranda) is right there beside him willing and able to help. But the gentlemenly Ferdinand says, "No, precious creature, I had rather crack my sinews, break my back, than you should such dishonor undergo." Miranda responds, "It would become me as well as it does you; and I should do it with much more ease." This, in its self should make the reader stop and think. By what logic would Miranda be able to perform the manual labor with "much more ease" than Ferdinand?
Then Prospero appears again. He tells Ferdinand, "You have strangely withstood the test." Strangely, indeed, has human industry, by refusing the assistance of reason, withstood the test. Prospero finds his point is proven. It is absolutely necessary that the union between Ferdinand (Human Industry), and Miranda (Reason) should take place. By no other means will it be possible to restore the Advancement of Learning to its proper condition, fertile, and capable of engendering a long race of benefits for mankind.
The foregoing is a preliminary of glimpse at the operation of Bacon's device in the Plays. Bacon had devised a "formula of interpretation" to control the discovery process. He kept this "formula of interpretation" secret. As to whether it is possible to uncover this secret or not by a process of reverse engineering, I can't say. Unfortunately I cannot follow this line of inquiry here because the message contains another important import which must be traced out, a hint as to the basic quiddity of the play.
We have seen that, at a certain point, the two columns on page two provide the following message (with their initial letters): F
B T A W CON O T A OBEY LIKE
On the surface this message has one meaning(it refers to Francis Bacon, and Tobie Matthew, who were two alike; Bacon calls Matthew his other self), and, beneath the surface it has another meaning. In order to detect the other meaning it is necessary to take a closer look at the passage which contains the "TWO ALIKE" message"
Prospero:. I pray thee marke me.
I thus neglecting worldly ends, all dedicated
T To Closeness, and the bettering of my mind
W With that which, but by being so retired,
O O'erprized all popular rate, in my false brother
A Awaked an evil nature, and my trust,
LIKE Like a good parent, did beget of him
A falsehood in its contrary as great As my trust was...
The subject of the text reflects the message of the margin. This is a device frequently used in the play, obviously for the purpose of drawing attention. The device points toward a further significance. The text refers to two brothers. They are alike not only through gender and generation, but also through the fact of their being inverses or contraries. The good nature of Prospero has a shadow (its opposite), the evil nature of Antonio. This is highly significant because it underscores just such a "two alike" pair at the core of the major passage:
This one, is, in fact, two, because the NBW also reads WBN. They are identical, but are direct opposites being inverses, or contraries. This is the key to the quiddity of the entire play. The play is replete with these "two alike" pairs which are identical, yet diametrically opposed. We know, for example, that the dial as a whole is made up of 16, or more accurately, 12 such "two alike" pairs. This scheme of 24 contraries, with two pairs of 12, points toward an interesting and very special construction in the play. The dial is both a compass dial, and a time dial, and is connected with cycles of time which are reflected in the play. The play takes place on the vernal equinox.* It ends at six in the afternoon. Six o'clock on the equinox is the dividing point between day and night. The play's ending placed at this point marks the end of a 24 hour period made up of the 12 hours of night, and the 12 hours (just ended) of day. That is, the end of the play is positioned to shadow forth a shceme of 24 contraries composed of two pairs of 12. The position on the vernal equinox shadows forth another such scheme. The sun has just completed 12 sidereal hours under the equator (the night of organic life on earth) followed by 12 sidereal hours above the equator (the day of organic life on earth) and now is once again positioned on the equator at the point between the day and night of organic life on earth. There is more, for the end of the play marks the end of a 24 year period. For the first 12 years of this period, Sycorax and her son Caliban (Mistress, and thing of darkness) had ruled the island. For the next 12 Prospero (the figure of knowledge and light) had ruled the island.
* There is a book by Colin Still entitled "Shakespeare's Mystery Play" which demonstrates that The Tempest is permeated throughout with the symbolic representation of the Greater Mysteries at Eleusis. These mysteries took place on the vernal Equinox. In addition, it was anciently believed that the equinoxes caused tempests. In the Golden Ass of Apuleius a tempest immediately preceeded the mystery ceremony. Also the vernal equinox was the time of the zenith of Arcturus (note Prospero's star at its zenith in The Tempest.
The title of the play is peculiarly apposite to symbolism dealing with divisions of time. The word tempest derives from the Latin tempestas with the termination dropped. The basic meaning has to do with time; a limited time or period, a portion, point or space in time, a season, or period, and as has often been noted, the time element is given peculiar emphasis in the play. This is an intrinsic part of the aeonic unity of the whole, and utilizes tradition in a symbolism which is the hinge on which Bacon's philosophical system swings.
Ariel and Caliban are creatures of nature, the native inhabitants of the island. They are thus two alike. While Caliban is a deformed monster who crawls upon the ground, however, Ariel is a graceful spirit who flies through the air. Sycorax and Prospero are "two alike" by virtue of being rulers of the island, but although they both practice magic, Sycorax is a creature of darkness who practices black magic, while Prospero the enlightened, is a creature of light who practices white magic. Miranda and Caliban are "two alike" since both are students of Prospero, but Miranda naturally turns the learning to good while Caliban naturally turns the learning to ill. An amazing number of these "two alikes" can be found in the play. This has even been a subject of special commentary.
In 1915, Allan Gilbert wrote an article (The Tempest: Parallelism in Characters and Situations, Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XIV, 63-74) in which he described the presence of this array of opposites. Although there were a great many of these opposites Gilbert did not perceive, and the terminology he used was "a conspicuous use of similar and yet con- trasted situations and characters", what he described was an array of situations and characters whose similarity and contrast resulted from their being linked by virtue of the fact of their direct opposition to each other.
This idea of the illusionary quality of the universe in the Vedic sources throws light on yet another aspect of the play. The illusionary atmosphere in The Tempest has long been the subject of commentary. In all criticism relating to The Tempest nothing, perhaps, has been shown more definitely than the fact that The Tempest portrays an illusionary dream world wherein reality is as shifting and uncertain as the reality of the world of dreams. In fact, D.G. James, in his The Dream of Prospero sums it all up with these words:
"I venture to suggest, in the light of all I have been saying about The Tempest, of the storm, of Prospero and his servants, of the island, of the play's action or lack of it, that we may best render the total impression it makes on us by saying that Prospero in truth never left Milan, that the island and all that we see happen on it was a dream of Prospero's only."
The message in The Tempest, "sit the dial at NBW, F Bacon, Tobey" has the implication it is addressed to "insiders" who are aware of the association of Bacon and Matthew, and are familiar with the operation of the "dial." There is the implication of a Secret Society, or at the very least of a secret group. If Bacon was associated with a Secret Society we should, of course, expect to find very little public indication of this. Nevertheless, some indications do exist.
In his Rule of The Present History Bacon indicates that the fourth part of his Instuaration has to do with his Alphabet of Nature:
"It is evident from what has been said that the present history not only supplies the place of the third part of the Instauration; but is no mean preparation for the fourth part by reason of the titles from The Alphabet..." and in a letter to Tobie Matthew he indicates that he was accustomed to refer to the fourth part as "works of the Alphabet":
"I have sent you some copies of the Advancement, which you desired; and a little work of my recreation, which you desired not. My Instauration I reserve for our conference; it sleep not. Those works of the Alphabet are in my opinion of less use to you where you are now, than at Paris; and therefore I conceive, that you had sent me a kind of tacit countermand of your former request. But in regard that some friends of yours have still insisted here, I send them to you; and for my part, I value your own reading more than your publishing them to others." This passage from the letter indicates more because it also indicates Bacon and Matthew had friends both in England and in Paris who were familiar with the works.
Another indication of such a group will be seen when we come to the subject of the Secret Vault, for it will become apparent that quite a substantial group of people were required to carry out the work on the vault.
Many Baconians believed that Bacon did establish a Secret Society. One of the most knowledgeable concerning Bacon, Mrs. Henry Pott, wrote an entire book, Francis Bacon and His Secret Society, devoted to demonstrating that Bacon did found a Secret Society. Her work, although it contains some interesting information, fails to accomplish its aim of demonstrating the existence of such a secret society.
In a series of private notes Bacon made in 1608, in the midst of all kinds of suggestions for self-improvement, lists of works completed and in progress, or projected, details of his personal financies, etc., there is a curious note:
"Foundac: Of a college for inventors, Library, Inginary. Qu. of the order and discipline, the rules and praescripts of their studyes and inquyries, allowances for travailing, intelligence, and correspondence with ye universities abroad. Qu. Of the maner and praescripts touching secrecy, traditions, and publication." In the context of the array of practical personal notes it is apparent this "college", this secret society which Bacon planned was not idle dreaming, but practical notes. Certainly the other personal notes dealt with matters Bacon was either working on at the time he made the notes, or intended to work on in the near future. And Bacon had already expressed his intention of entrusting his "formula of interpretation to a group of select minds."
Is there any evidence connecting Bacon with a Secret Society? There is, but who must look beneath the surface of his writings to find this evidence. In The New Atlantis Bacon clearly indicates his connection with a particular Secret Society.
The New Atlantis is very significant in light of the scheme of Bacon's Great Instauration, and of his central metaphor of the Intellecutual Globe. Bacon constructed an analogue globe which was a replica in miniature of the great globe. On this analogue globe ancient, received knowledge corresponded to the land centering around the mediterranean sea, while the New World of the Sciences to be discovered through the voyage of discovery permitted by the use of his discovery device (The Intellectual Compass) corresponded to the New World (America) far out beyond the Gates of Hercules, across the Atlantic. John Dee (and others) had debated whether America was the ancient Atlantis. Bacon, following this notion, labeled his New World of the Sciences the New Atlantis, and clearly indicated in the work itself, that it was the land of the Rosicrucians!* The significance of this seems to be that He was serving notice through his veiled method of delivery that the New World of the Sciences, that domain of knowledge to be reserved to a secret group, was the domain of the Rosicrucians.
See the chapter on Francis Bacon in THE ROSICRUCIAN ENLIGHTENMENT By Frances Yates
Lets take a closer look, therefore, at the subject of Bacon's connection with the Rosicrucians. There is no "hard evidence" that a Rosicrucian Brotherhood ever existed at all. There is evidence, however, of the existence of a secret society for which the Rosicrucian phenomena was a facade.
Three publications appeared in Germany in 1614, 1615, and 1616 respectively. If the society existed these are the only direct evidence for its existence. Other evidence is circumstantial. Other publications are in reaction to these three publications, and, in fact, the 1616 publication was in reaction also to the 1614 and 1615 publications, and is more of the nature of a red herring, than of anything else in studying the phenomenon. The publications are as follows:
1. A short pamphlet in German, published in Cassel, Germany in 1614 by Wilhelm Wessel (who was printer for the prince Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse), and entitled Fame Fraternity, or a Discovery of The Most Noble Order of The Rosy Cross (hereafter referred to as The Fame).
2. Another short pamphlet published at the same place by the same printer in 1615, entitled The Confession of the Rosicrucian Fraternity (hereafter referred to as The Confession).
3. A third, much longer publication of quite a different type, published in Strasburg, Germany in 1616, entitled The Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosy Cross (hereafter referred to as The Chemical Wedding). Immediately after these publications in order of importance for the understanding of the phenomenon was a series of weighty books by Robert Fludd, and Michael Maier, which were published in the years following the appearance of the three publications listed above. Although both Fludd and Maier denied that they were Rosicrucians, they are generally recognized as the chief exponents of the Rosicrucian philosophy. The Major works of Fludd and Maier were published by the De Bry publishing firm at Oppenheim in the Palatine during the reign of Frederick V. The Fame opened with a call to all men of knowledge, united they might collect the Book of Nature,- a perfect method of all arts and sciences, but their pride and greed is so great it will not allow agreement among them. They remain on the same old course, still esteeming Porphry, Aristotle, Galen, and those mere shows of learning rather than the clear light and simple truth. Their science is filled with errors, but their contention prevents them from amending it.
There is still hope for them, however, because the perfect method of all arts and sciences has already been discovered by Father C.R.C. who founded the Rosie Cross Fraternity. At an early age he went to Damasco, and became acquainted with the Wise Men of Damcar in Arabia and beheld their wonders, and how they had discovered the secrets of nature. After traveling on to Damcar he perfected himself in the Arabic tongue, and learned Physic and Mathematics. Then he went to Egypt where he studied plants and creatures for a short time and proceeded on to Fez where he studied Mathematics, Physic and Magic and became acquainted with the Elementals who revealed unto him many of their secrets. C.R.C. found in the doctrines of FEZ that microcosmic doctrine which demonstrated the agreement of man, the little cosmos, with the world, the great cosmos. (Apparently Fez is utilized to indicate to the reader the mode of communication in the FAMA. Fez was noted was being composed of such diverse cultures that the residents had to use symbols in order to communicate with one another).
After leaving Fez, C.R.C. tried to impart the arts and secrets to the learned of Europe, to show them how to write the true and infallible Axiomata out of all faculties, sciences and arts, but he was laughed at for his pains. So with the aid of a few people close to him he began the Fraternity of the Rosy Cross, and began to attempt the necessary reformation of all knowledge. These three working together made the magical language and writing, with a large dictionary which the Fraternity daily uses to God's praise and glory. They also completed the first part of the Book M, but since the labor involved was so great, and much of their time was used attending to the sick they decided to receive others into their Fraternity. They received R.C., Brother B., G.G., and P.D., so that in all they were now eight:
and by these eight the Book M was completed, a volume of all man can desire, wish, or hope for. With this work the Fraternity was assured their Axiomata would immovably remain unto the world's end and that the world in its highest and last age would not attain to anything higher, for their ROTA took its beginning from that day when God spoke Fiat, and would end when HE spoke Pereat, yet God's clock strikes every minute while theirs scarce strikes perfect hours. Their science perfected, the brothers separated themselves into several countries not only so their Axiomata might in secret be more profoundly examined by the learned, but that they themselves, if in some country or other observed anything, or perceived some error, might inform one another of it. Prior to their separation they drew up an agreement among themselves:
Following this, the Fraternity continued for many years. In their philosophical BIBLIOTHECA their AXIOMATA was held for the chiefest, their ROTA MUNDI for the most artificial; their PROTEUS for the most profitable. The brother I.O. in England was the first to die. The brother A. was the successor of D. After A. died in France he was succeeded by Brother N.N. who, thinking to alter some of the building Santi Spiritus, happened one day to remove a stone which revealed a hidden door. Clearing the remainder of the stones away from thea door he saw written in large letters on it:
When the door was opened the Brethren found a vault of seven sides and seven corners, every side five feet wide and eight feet high. The vault was lite by a sun which operated with the same principle as the real sun, and was located in the center part of the ceiling. Instead of a tombstone a round altar was in the middle of the vault, and engraved on it was the words:
When the altar was removed the wonderfully preserved body of C.R.C. was found. In his hand was a book called "I" which, next to the Bible, was the greatest treasure of the Rosicrucians, and at the end of the book was a eulogy which said (among other things) that C.R.C. had:
"...constructed a microcosm corresponding in all motions to the macrocosm and finally drew up this compendium of things past, present, and to come."
It was made clear this sentence described his tomb, and underneath the brothers had subscribed themselves:
4. Fra. F.B. M.P.A. Pictor et Architectus Secundi Circuli
The publication of The Fame aroused intense excitement in Europe, and the mystery of the story of the Fraternity and the mysterious Brothers was further increased in the following year by the publication of the second Rosicrucian manifesto, The Confession..
The Confession continued the discussion of the Brothers, of their philosophy, and their mission. It stated that their only philosophy was that which was the head of all faculties, arts, and sciences, and if all learning should be lost, the knowledge brought forth by C.R.C. would allow posterity to lay a new foundation of sciences. The manifesto invited the learned to join the Brothers in their work. They would have only to declare their mind "either Communicatio, or singulatim by print", and their opinion would "assuredly come" to the hands of the Brothers.
Many were the passionate efforts to reach the Brothers, by letters, printed appeals, and by pamphlets. Among these publications, evoked by the manifestos there should apparently also be included The Hermetic Wedding which was published in the year following the publication of The Confession and unlike the two former publications was not a manifesto, and was not published at Cassel, but at Strausburg. The Chemical Wedding was an account of the mystic marriage of Christian Rosencreutz which ended a seven day experience in a castle complete with visions, theatrical performances, and a ceremony of initiation into an order of chivalry. It had been written by Johann Valentine Andreae around 1603, but this information was only made public when his autobiography was published in 1849.*
There are good reasons for believing Andreae did not write the manifestos. If he did they would have been printed by his publisher in Strasburg. On the other hand whoever wrote the manifestos was probably familiar with Andreae's work (still in manuscript at the time) and derived some of the ideas in the manifestos from that work. It appears Andreae retained the manuscript of his Chemical Wedding from the time he wrote it in 1603 until the manifestos were published, and then, noting ideas in the manifestos similar to those in his work had, his manuscript (which had long been gathering dust) published. A flood of printed works took their rise from the invitation to get in touch with and coorperate with the works of Brothers of the Order. As far as is known all appeals went unanswered. This did not diminish interest in the Brothers. On the contrary it intensified it. This, in summary, is the story of the Rosicrucian phenomena. A story which has never ceased to attract and inspire those interested in the bizarre and mysterious. Some take the story literally. Many have labelled it a hoax. A few, such as Frances Yates, have suggested it may have contained in allegorical form serious religious and philosophical implications. They have all missed the point.
Bacon candidly admitted his Instauration had a secret part. He said he was interested in recruiting people for the work of this part. His method of recruitment would allow those who, through the strength of their own genius were able to enter the veil, but would exclude the vulgar. We will never know if The manifestos were devised by Bacon for the purpose of his recruitment, but they do match his described recruitment method. They contain within them the information which would have enabled those with the requisite power of mind to trace them back to their origin, and which would at the same time have excluded all others.
Bacon knew there were a considerable number of individuals scattered all over Europe driven by the Faustian quest for knowledge, and through his stated principle of singling and adopting the members and strengthen- ing the affection of those who through their abilities of mind were capable of being admitted, Bacon may have formulated the manifestos in the form of an intelligence test which contained the knowledge (for those capable of understanding it) which could be used to contact the originators of the manifestos.
At the time neither the manifestos, nor the Chemical Wedding contained any publicly known information which would establish a connection with Andrea, but they did contain definite information pointing to England, and establishing a connection with two men:
The first evidence pointing to England was the emblem of the Rose Cross itself. If, as I believe, The Wedding was not supposed to be part of the evidence presented, the puzzle was a subtle one; with the publication of The Wedding it became rather obvious. The cross was evidently rose colored, i.e., a red cross. The sign of the red cross was well known. When Pope Urban II preached the first crusade at Clermong in central France, in that open field outside the town he designated a cross made red with the blood of Christ as the badge of the "soldiers of Christ", the knights who would venture forth on their holy crusade in the cause of recovering the Holy Land from the infidels. This cross became the cross of the Knights Templars, the Christian heroes who wore it on their breasts in their wars against the Saracens and Turks. The fact of the initiation into an order of chilvary in The Wedding only made this more obvious. With the Rosicrucians, however, the Holy Cause had suffered a sea-change into something rich and strange. Instead of a "red with the blood of Christ cross" used as an emblem in the cause of recover- ing the Holy Land from the infidels, the same cross was now rose red and was used as an emblem in the holy crusade of the Advancement of Learning. This is where the clue came in, for there was another well known red cross,- the cross of St. George, the patron saint of England, and the legend of St. George had its arising from a historic figure - George of Capodoccia, who was renowned for his learning. Also the red cross of England was usually associated with a red rose - the tudor rose. Moreover, the red cross and the rose were customary on various insignia associated with England: the emblem of the Knights of the Garter (royal order of chilvary of England), on the sails of the english navy's flagship, the Ark Royal, etc. The Rosy Cross was the emblem of the Rose and The Red Cross of Saint George which adorned the sails of the English sailing ships of discovery as they set forth of their voyages to the New World, precisely the emblem utilized by Bacon as the headpiece to his published works. This along with the general tenor of the manifestos regarding the advancement of learning, and with the specific information they contained which connected them with John Dee and Francis Bacon should have been sufficient for any sagacious person to track the Rosicrucian phenomenon to its source.
The Confession had a tract, called, "A brief Consideration of a more Secret Philosophy", published with it. This tract was based on John Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica , much of it being work for word quotations from the Monas. This tract was part of the Confession publication, and the Confession was linked to The Fame. Thus, it is definite the "more secret" philosophy behind the manifestos was the Monas of John Dee. Furthermore Dee's Monas appeared on the title page of the Wedding and in the text beside the poem with which the allegory began. The Francis Bacon influence in the manifestos
The manifestos were saturated through and through with the most detailed impress of Bacon's thought. This is seen in their central theme dealing with the advancement of learning, and in their often repeated idea of a perfect method of the arts and sciences, but the first paragraph alone of The Fame is more than sufficient to establish the connection with the thought of Bacon:
"See the only wise and merciful God in these latter days hath poured out so richly his mercy and goodness to mankind, whereby we do attain more and more to the perfect knowledge of his Son Jesus Christ and Nature, that justly we may boast of the happy time, wherein there is not only discovered unto us the half part of the world, which was heretofore unknown and hidden, but he hath also made manifest unto us many wonderful, and never heretofore seen, works and creatures of Nature, and moreover hath raised men, imbued with great wisdom, who might partly renew and reduce all arts (in this our age spotted and imperfect) to perfection; so that finally man might thereby understand his own nobleness and worth, and why he is called Microcosmus, and how far his knowledge extendeth into Nature."
There are six major ideas in this paragraph:
1.The renewal (Instauration) of all arts
2.That the opening of the previously unexplored half of the globe is connected with the opening up of the previously unexplored part of Nature
3.That the two events are ordained by God to occur together in the same age.
4.That the event is, therefore, not to be credited to any one man, but to the age itself. (This is implied in the paragraph, but stated explicitly later in The Confession.)
5.That accomplishing this work will allow man to know why he "is called Microcosmus." (Certainly a unique notion.)
6.That the age has seen men raised up who are "imbued with great wisdom" and are equal to the task at hand.
These ideas are all somewhat off the beaten path, and taken together they constitute the fingerprint of a mind. They are all stock ideas of Bacon's which he constantly reiterates:
"There was but one course left, therefore,-- to try the whole thing anew upon a better plan, and to commence a total reconstruction of sciences, arts, and all human knowledge, raised upon the proper foundations." Proemium to the Great Instauration
"...and if by travel, it requireth to voyage but of half the globe. But to circle the earth, as the heavenly bodies do, was not done nor enterprised till these later times: and therefore these times may justly bear in their word, not only plus ultra (more beyond), in precedence of the ancient non ultra (no more beyond), and immitable thunderbolt in precedence of the ancient nonimitable thunderbolt... but likewise imitabile coalum; in respect of the many memorable voyages, after the manner of heaven, about the globe of the earth.
And this proficience in navigation and discoveries may plant also an expectation of the further proficience and augmentation of all sciences because it may seem they are ordained by God to be coevals, that is, to meet in one age. For so the prophet Daniel speaking of the latter times foretelleth, Many shall pass to and fro and know-ledge shall be multiplied: as if the opernness and through passage of the world and the increase of knowledge were appointed to be in the same ages..."
The Advancement of Learning
These two passages the express the first four ideas in the paragraph. The fifth, that by opening up the previously unexplored parts of nature man will learn why he is called Microcosmus, is a peculiar idea, one apparently unique to Bacon. According to Bacon the disciples of Paracelsus had "fantastically strained" the idea of why man was Microcosmus. For Bacon, man was microcosmus because his mind, like a glass, had the ability to receive in it the image of the great world:
"...God hath framed the mind of man as a glass capable of the images of the universal world, joying to receive the signature thereof as the eye is of light..."
This was Bacon's great concept of the Intellectual Globe, a microcosm in the mind of man which was a true model of the great world. Bacon sees the natural philosopher as God's viceregent recreating in the mind of man a little world modeled after God's great world. Only then will man truly know why "he is called Microcosmus."
Bacon referred several times to the idea that men with exceptional wisdom, who were equal to the task of the Instauration, had been raised upon in his age:
"It has occurred to me likewise, that there are doubtlessly many wits scattered over Europe, capacious, open, lofty, subtle, solid, and constant...there be good hope that these great wits I spoke of before, such as flourished in the old philosophers, and are even still often to be found..."
Thought and Conclusions
With the influence of Dee, Iohann Andrea, and Francis Bacon definitely established in the Rosicrucian publications it appears The Fame gave information relating to actual people connected with the Brotherhood. The alternative suggestion that the initials I.A., and F.B., and D., appeared by chance in the membership rooster of the organization is simply too much of a coincidence.
It seems quite likely brother R. can be identified also. The connection of the publications with England and with Protestant Activism has already been demonstrated. In view of this it seems probable that the large letter subscript with which the original Fame ended: SUB UMBRA ALARUM TUARUM JEHOVAH referred to the famous event which occurred in the summer of 1582. At that time William the Silent of Orange was leader of the Protestant forces in the Netherlands. A small group of Englishmen went to Antwerp to meet with him. Queen Elizabeth herself rode out with theam as far as Canterbury. The group was made up of Walter Raleigh, Lord Hunsdon, the Earl of Leicester, Fulke Greville, Philip Sidney, and Edward Dyer. When the queen turned back the group continued on, crossed the channel, and proceeded onward to Antwerp where they met William of Orange. Raleigh was detained there by William after the others had returned, and entrusted with letters for Queen Elizabeth. He was also entrusted with a special verbal message for the Queen:
That is, "UNDER THE SHADOW OF YOUR WINGS WE ARE PROTECTED." William of Orange was sending both an appeal, and an acknowledgement, to Queen Elizabeth of her support of the Protestant cause. In view of the English connections and the Protestant activism of the Rosicrucian publications it is evident the postscript of The Fame referred to that famous event involving Sir Walter Raleigh and William the silent of Orange. It both referred to that famous message, and amended it to conform to its source,- the Psalms, where several variations of the phrase, under the shadow of your wings Jehovah we are protected, was to be found. Queen Elizabeth had died in 1603. King James was too much of a moral and physical coward to become involved with anything even remotely connected with a martial cause. The Protestant cause had indeed to look for its protection under the shadow of the wings of Jehovah.
In addition to the William of Orange incident there is other evidence indicating the "R" in the membership roster of the Fraternity referred to Raleigh. This becomes evident when a little more detail on the English side of the Rosicrucian canvas is painted in. In addition to the red cross being the cross of St. George, and associated with the idea of the advancement of learning, this learning is associated with the idea of a microcosm, and of a globe. Twice in the very short Fame this curious reference to a globe is forced in:
"If they would have but undertaken to write the true and infallible Axiomata, out of all faculties, sciences, and arts, and whole Nature, as that which we knew would direct them, like a globe or circle, to the only middle point and Centrum..." and:
"All that same concurreth together, and makes a sphere or Globe, whose total parts are equidistant from the Centre..." With this in mind it is very interesting that in the late 1570s, and early 1580s, in England, John Dee, Francis Bacon, Walter Raleigh, Protestant Activism, Chivalry, and the Red Cross in connection with the idea of the advancement of learning were all closely interrelated in a remarkable foreshadowing of the Rosicrucian phenomenon which later took place in Germany in 1614, 1615, and 1616.
Once it is realized Spenser was one of Bacon's masks it becomes easy to trace the course of this earlier development in England. John Dee was closely associated with both Philip Sidney's Areopagus group, and Raleigh's "School of Night". So was Spenser. At the era in question, Richmond Palace, a favorite country residence of Queen Elizabeth was located beside the Thames, thirteen few miles upstream from London. across the Thames was Twickenham Park, the country retreat of Francis Bacon. Adjacent to Richmond was the little village of Mortlake with John Dee's residence between the church and the river; a rambling structure he had built additions to over the years, which contained not only several rooms for his library (the greatest in all England), but rooms for resident students as well. A short distance away on the same side of the Thames toward London was Barn Elms, Francis Walsingham's country seat, and not far away from Barn Elms was Syon House, home of the famous "Wizard Earl", Henry Percy, the principal associate of Raleigh in his "School of Night." During this period these four residences at Twickenham, Mortlake, Barn Elms, and Syon House played a principal part in those early events in England which were connected with the Rosicrucian phenomenon which took place later in Germany. After Sidney's death in 1587 much of the interest centers around Raleigh's residence in Durham House on the strand. The story begins with John Dee, a Faustian type whose obsession for learning was so great it ultimately impelled him into the supernatural, after he was unable to quake his thirst from orthodox fountains. Dee united unique mental gifts with a unique appetite for learning. Dee says:
"In the years 1543, 1544, 1545, I was so vehemently bent to studie, that for those yeares I did inviolably keepe this order: only to sleepe four houres every night: to allow meate and drink (and some refreshing after) two hours every day: and of the other eighteen houres all (except the tyme of going and being at divine service) was spent in my studies and learning." and this passion for learning remained with him all his life. In 1583 he wrote: "All my life time I had spent in learning: but for this forty years continually, in sundry manners, and in divers Countries, with great pain, care, and cost, I had from degree to degree, sought to come by the best knowledge that man might attain unto in the world: and I found (at length) that neither any man living, nor any Book I could yet meet withal, was able to teach me those truth I desired, and longed for: And therefore I concluded with myself, to make intercession and prayer to the giver of wisdom and all good things, to send me such wisdom as I might know the natures of his creatures; and also enjoy means to use them to his honour and glory."
Dee adds that, as a result of his prayers, God's "Holy Angels for these two years and a half have used to inform me."
Dee accumulated the largest library in all of England. In this library was a large number of rare, esoteric works, and Dee apparently conducted some type of Esoteric School at his residence at Mortlake. Although the records are scant they certainly point to this. Thomas Moffett, chief physician to the Earl of Pembroke's family, says of Philip Sidney:
"Not satisfied with the judgement and reach of common sense, with his eye passing to and fro through all nature, he pressed into the inner-most penetralia of causes; and by that token, led by God, with Dee as teacher, and with Dyer as companion, he learned chemistry, that starry science, rival of nature."
In Dee's esoteric school chemistry or alchemy included the entire cosmos. Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, was taught by Dee when a young man, and Dudley first introduced Dee to Queen Elizabeth. This was when Elizabeth was in prison before becoming queen. At the time it seemed very likely Elizabeth would lose her head. Dee informed her she would one day be queen, and advised her that she should be spending her time preparing herself for that duty. After becoming Queen, Elizabeth remembered how Dee had known in the face of circumstance she would become Queen. For the rest of her life she had a vast respect for this strange man.
Dee had a glass said to reflect in itself the entire world. We hear of Queen Elizabeth riding out to Mortlake to see this "magic glass of which she had heard so much." The episode in the Faerie Queene describing how Britomart (a character based on Queen Elizabeth) wanted to see her lover in "the globe which Merlin made", is supposed to have been based on this incident:
"By strange occasion she did him behold And much more strangely gan to love his sight, As in books hath written been of old. In Beheubarth, that now South-Wales is Hight, What time King Ryence raign'd and ealed right, The great magician Merlin had devised, A looking-glass, right wondrously aguised, Whose vertue had to show in perfect sight Whatever thing was in the world contained, Betwixt the lowest earth and heavens hight, So that it to a looker appertained:
Whatever foe had wrought, or friend had faynd, Therein discovered was, ne ought mote pas, Ne ought in secret from the same remayned; Frothy it round and hollow shaped was, Like to the World itself, and seemed a world of glass." Later accounts variously described this as the "magical glass", a "glittering globe", and so on. Dee's influence is evident in Francis Bacon's "Intellectual Globe", the globe of crystal in which all the world is contained.
On the night of September 10th, 1579, John Dee had a curious dream. He dreamed that his skin was all "overwrought with work like some kind of tuft mokado, with crosses blew and red."
In addition to his "magical glass" Dee had a great crystal globe in which visions were sometimes seen by himself but more frequently by Edward Kelly while Dee recorded them. For students of Rosicrucian phenomena these visions have considerable interest. Dee believed certain Angelic entities were communicating with him through this globe of crystal and would show him in it all things however hidden that were in the great globe.
On June 18, 1583, as he peered into the globe, Kelly described a strange sight. He saw, he said, a great angel in a white robe holding a bloody red cross in his right hand. On June 22, 1583, he described an angel with a myterlike attire on its head and a cross on the forepart of it. On April 15, 1584, he saw a great red cross over the crystal globe which then moved inside the globe. On April 27, 1584, he saw in the globe the monarch of that country from which the visions were given through the globe. "This Monarch was skilfull in all Sciences, and knew all things to come." On May 7, 1584, Kelly and Dee were instructed through their Angelic Conferences to make a white cloth for the table on which the globe of crystal stood, and to have red crosses on the white cloth. ON August 15, 1584, Kelly described a garland of rosebuds about the border of the crystal globe, and these then seemed to change into lillies (lillies are also something associated with the Rosicrucian phenomenon).
Leicester was very close to England's first great spymaster, Francis Walsingham, who was married to his sister. They were both close to John Dee. During the period in question both Leicester and Walsingham were frequent visitors to Walsingham's residence at Barn Elms. In addition, Dee was employed from time to time by Walsingham as a spy.
These three men were close to Philip Sidney, who, along with his closest friend, Edward Dryer (another member of the Areopagus group) had been students of John Dee's. Sidney had been a frequent visitor at Barn Elms before taking up residence there after marrying Walsingham's daughter in 1583. Sidney was already nephew to Leicester even before the marriage.
Francis Walsingham was a rabid Protestant. Philip Sidney was killed in 1587 fighting for the Protestant cause in the Netherlands with those same Protestant forces of which William the Silent of Orange had been leader before his assasination in 1584. Leicester also fought in the same battle.
John Dee had a record in his diary of a visit made to his residence at Mortlake, in 1582. "Aug. 11th, Mr. Bacon and Mr. Phillips of the court cam." Since Nicholas Bacon had died in 1579, and Anthony Bacon was abroad at the time, and Thomas Phellips was a close friend of Francis Bacon's, this visit could only have been by Francis Bacon and Thomas Phellips. The visit is of interest because Thomas Phellips was employed by Walsingham. Phellips was England's first great cipher expert, but all three men had in common that they were cipher experts. Just what were these three meeting about at this time? The timing of their meeting gives an interesting clue, and I will return to this later. The legend depicting Philip Sidney as the perfect hero knight of militant Christianity, and as the perfect hero of Protestant chivalry grew up after his death. There was a group around Sidney, the "Sidney Circle", aka, the "Areopagus Group" engaged in informally organized esoteric studies, and Dee was the Magus of the group. Practically all evidence relating to the Areopagus is contained in five letters between Gabriel Harvey, and Edmund Spenser (Francis Bacon) written in 1570 and 1580. The core of the group was Sidney, Edward Dryer, and Fulke Greville, referred to by Sidney as the blessed trinity. Additionally, there must be included Francis Bacon, under his "Spenser" mask, Daniel Rogers, John Dee, Henry Con- stable, and, closely connected with the group from outside,- the famous Dutch scholar Justus Lipsius.
Sir Walter Raleigh shared the leadership of his group at Durham house with two eminent noblemen, Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, (commonly know as "The Wizard Earl"), and Henry Brooke, eighth Baron Cobham. Also associated with the group was Christopher Marlowe, Robert Hues, Thomas Hariot, Walter Warner, Sir George Carey, Lawrence Keymis, Thomas Allen, Nicholas Hill, and Nathaniel Torporley. It is important to note in passing that Raleigh's group used the Rosicrucian connected De Bry Publishing Firm for many of their publications. Spenser (Bacon) and Raleigh were closely connected. It is well known that Fulke Greville was a close and long time friend of Francis Bacon
While Bacon was using the mask of Spenser and closely associated with Dee and these two groups, he produced what was really the first Rosicrucian manifesto. This was the Fairie Queene (produced under his Spenser mask). In the Fairie Queene is the first definite combination of chilvalry, red cross, and advancement of learning. The first book of the Fairie Queene narrates the adventures of the Red Cross Knight. This knight, along with Una (the monas or one of Dee), is proceeding along his way when a sudden tempest arises. Seeking shelter from the tempest, the Red Cross Knight and Una enter, and become lost in a labyrinthine like wood (which the story tells us is Errors Den). The parallel should be noted with The Tempest where, following a tempest, the passengers become lost and under go a labyrinthine like wandering about the island. When Red Cross finally penetrates to the center of the wood and engages the monster Error in battle he discovers her to be a woman above the waist and a serpentine monster below (paralleling Bacon's use of Scylla as a lively imagine of scholastic philosophy who was a comely virgin in the upper parts, but was made up of barking monsters in her lower parts).
All of this demonstrates that in England at this period the major elements which later surfaced in the Rosicrucian phenomenon (the red cross in connection with the advancement of learning; John Dee, Francis Bacon; Protestant Activism; Chivalry; and the De Bry Publishing Firm) were already found in those two close knit groups.
If Bacon was the moving force behind all of this, why did he wait until 1614 (or the latter part of 1612 since there is evidence the Fame first appeared at that point) to publish the manifestos? And why were they published in Germany rather than in England?
Bacon took the Great Instauration as the central ambition of his life, but without some high office from which to work, his goal could not be achieved. Therefore, he set himself the task of climbing to some high place on the ladder of state. There is no doubt of Bacon's ability. He was not only the most brilliant man in all England, he may weel have been the most brilliant man in all of human history. Yet he suffered on with his ambition unrequited until late in 1612 when he began a startlingly swift ascent which in five years carried him all the way to the top of the ladder.
It is obvious that something, some unseen force anchored him down for all those years, and that it was the removal of that unseen force which allowed him to soar to the top. To anyone who has studied the case of Bacon with any care it is obvious what this force was. It was the little hunchback, Robert Cecil, Bacon's first cousin, who was of the same blood line with some sparks of that praeternatural flame of intellect which was Bacon's. The brilliant Cecil was called "Robert Diabolus" by Bacon and his friends. From the beginning of Elizabeth's reign she brought with her William Cecil, Robert Cecil's father, as principal power in the state, and he in turn saw that power was passed on to Robert Cecil.
Little hunchbacked Robert had played with Bacon as a child, and saw and feared his greater brilliance. Placed by virtue of fortune in the place of advantage he did not fail to use that place to smother the greater light which might have eclipsed his own. After he died the rise of Bacon was of an unprecedented swiftness.
But Bacon had outlived and passed one insurmountable obstacle only to be confronted with another. At least Robert Cecil had been a man of ability. This new obstacle, King James I, was one of the most worthless human beings who ever lived.
Although he combined a fair intellect with the training of a scholar, King James was about as worthless as anyone who ever lived. He was an infestation of physical deformities. He slithered like a crab when he walked; continually slobbered, farted, threw up, bled from the anus due to hemmorhoids, and stunk to high heaven (he had an adversion to water, never washed, was utterly filthy). Beyond all this he was a homosexual who openly fondled his favorites in their most private parts even while conducting court affairs. He was a complete coward both physically and mentally. His horror of witchcraft was merely a symptom of his horror of any type of knowledge removed by so much as a hair from the "beaten path." Bacon had to delicately steer his way around the subject of mathematics when addressing his exposition of the Advancement of Learning since it had diabolical associations to the common mind (and what could have been more common than the mind of James?).
Furthermore, Bacon soon discovered James had absolutely no interest in the advancement of learning anyway. James advanced Bacon, but only after Cecil died, when he desparately needed someone to run the affairs of the kingdom so he could be free to amuse himself with his homosexual activities with his favorites.
Nevertheless, James' daughter, Princess Elizabeth, married Frederick V, the Elector Palatine of the Shrine in February of 1613, and here at last, Bacon saw the opportunity to get his scheme off the ground. This is why, in the words of Frances Yates, what developed as Baconism in England developed as Rosicrucianism in Germany, and why this development was principally associated with the reign of Frederick V. We have already seen the connection between Maurice, Landgrave of Hess, and Henry, Prince of Wales. There is evidence Bacon saw Henry as the great hope for his scheme before Henry's sudden death in 1612. There is a tantalizing bit of information which indicates the possibility of a connection between the Bacon and Andrea family. In the summer of 1553, when Bloody Mary (who burned some 300 Protestants in her short reign) came to power, Francis Bacon's learned grandfather, Sir Anthony Cooke, was a prominent Protestant strongly aligned with the Protestant cause. He escaped martyrdom only when he managed to leave the country and reached Strasbourg, where he remained with the English colony of Marian exiles for the four years until bloody Mary died. The grandfather of Johann V. Andreas was a distinguished Lutheran theologian. Was a connection established between the two families at that time which lasted to the time of Francis and Johann?
Robert Fludd is another link in that strong chain connecting Bacon to the Rosicrucian phenomena. Arthur E. waite says of Fludd:
"The central figure of Rosicrucian literature, towering as an intellectual giant above the crowd...is Robertus de Fluctibus..."
Fludd and Bacon were extremely close, although on the surface there is no connection between them. Fludd names as his two oldest and closest friends, Lancelot Andrewes and John Selden, the men with whom Bacon had an identical relationship.
The cosmologies of Fludd and Bacon were strange, and seemingly abso- lutely identical, although Fludd's cosmology included information in the area of theology which was excluded from Bacon's. Both were the cosmologies of Christian Cabala, and it may be argued that there identity arise from this, but they had certain features in common (most notably the "fire" and "love" doctrines) which were not derived from Christian Cabala.
Fludd's system took its rise from Jehovah, designated by the Hebrew Tetragrammaton YHVH, and illustrated in Fludd's works by these letters enclosed in a cloud (since God was beyond human inquiry). God was an absolute unity. But he could either remain in a potential state, or He could act. Matter existed before the creation was formed. Christian Cabala was evident in the doctrine. The potential state was the DARK aleph, a chaos and dark abyss. The active state was the LIGHT aleph. DE ARTE CABALISTA of Reuchlin, famed Christian Cabalist, was the source of this doctrine. When the LIGHT aleph acted upon chaotic matter the production of this activity of God was light:
"So that as two contrarieties of discords, proceeded from one Unity or unison, namely Light and Darkness from one Divine Essence; so also these two dissonant branches or confusion of Unities, will at the last be reduced or return again into one harmonious Unity, in which there will be found no dissonancy..." Fludd described this God as fire; the "Ens entium",- the pure igneous or fiery inviolate existence. There was an interesting tradition behind this description. In ANACALYPSIS Godfrey Higgins says:
"I believe by almost all the ancients, both jews and gentiles, the Supreme Being was thought to be material, and to consist of a very refined igneous fluid; more like the galvanic or electric fire than any thing with which I am acquainted." In the READINGS Edgar Cayce repeatedly stated that what we know as electricity is God; the nearest thing to a manifestation of God in His pure essence which exists in materiality. Electricity was not known in Fludd's day, but Fludd repeatedly said that although it is impossible for men immaged in matter to know God (Who is a Spirit; Whose majesty and essence our eyes are unable to perceive) yet the best picture which exists of God in materiality is fire.
Fludd said it was by fire that the Incomprehensible Jehova brought forth the creation from the original chaos; that the Chaldeans called this power, the fiery love, so that the entire creation was produced through the power of love, and said that although this love is a fire it is capable of multiplying itself endlessly. Like the Bible Fludd set out the process of creation into six states. Following the separa- tion in the beginning of light from darkness, Pan, the second creature, was produced. For (he says), the true meaning of "Pan" is universal nature, and universal nature rises to birth from the deformity of chaos.
Fludd said that all things spring from the contention between discord and concord, hatred and love, or antipathy and sympathy. The DARK ALEPH, that chaos which existed before the divine word in the beginning was made up of discord or strife, and was cast into the abyss when Pan, the LIGHT ALEPH was placed upon the throne. The DARK ALEPH is opposed to the LIGHT ALEPH so that the whole world and every creature is "of a twofold nature, whereof the one is contrary unto the other, and yet there is not anything which is defective." Love and hatred, sympathy and antipathy, were created to girdle and shoulder one another in the world; first angels, then stars, then winds and elements, and, lastly, compound creatures, which are composed of these elements. Man is a microcosm of the great world. The soul in the great world has the same faculties as the soul in the little world. As the great world is composed of hatred and friendship, so is the little world which is man. The same passions in man are also in universal nature.
In his Philosophical Key Fludd calls this fire from which all things was created, Demogorgon*. In the beginning, Fludd says, Demogorgon existed in Eternity along with Chaos. Chaos was also known as Hyle, that dark deformity out of which the world was made.
In the pagan systems Demogorgon was considered the most primordial, and father of all the gods. The word derives from Daemon and Gorgon, and means the genius or tutelary spirit of the fates. An interesting note, for students of Theosophy is that, according to Ariosto, Demogorgon had a great palace in the Himalayas where, every fifth year, he summoned all the fates to give an account of their actions.
Prior to creation Chaos discharged Litigium from her womb by abor- tion. Litigium was the leprous bastard of his mothers deformity, termed Litigium or Contention because he is the sire and fosterfather of strife, dissension and antipathy, and therefore a perpetual enemy of bright Demogorgon who is the king of unity and concord. A foul and deformed creature, he was the very prince of darkness, and was therefore cast by Demogorgon down to the very bottom of darkness.
Chaos next brought forth from her womb a second fruit of more worthy condition, Pan, or Universal Nature. Demogorgon imparted to Pan the form of fire and brightness. Next Eternity brought forth Chronos or time who was assigned as a faithful companion to nature, and to created beings, to guide and proportion the minutes of life, and to guard against the malice of that perilous and most subtle enemy Litigium. (The cosmological allegory in The Tempest is identical to the doctrine of Fludd and Bacon. Note how Chaos, Litigium, Pan, and Chronos are exactly paralleled by Sycorax, Caliban, Ariel, and Prospero in The Tempest. Also note how the following doctrine of Bacon's parallels this.) According to Bacon Chaos existed in the beginning,- the rude, undigested mass of matter. The Divine Word produced light, and Pan or Universal Nature. Love or desire was the force which produced this creation,-that impulse of desire impressed by God upon the primary particles of matter which made them come together, and which, by repetition and multipli- cation produced all the variety of nature, a thing mortal thought may glance at, but can hardly take in. For this summary law of nature, and God are both hidden as behind a screen.
According to Bacon, man, the little world, was a microcosm, and the same passions of strife and friendship found in man were also found in the great world of universal nature. "There is a great correspondence", Bacon said, "between the passions of bodies which have sense and bodies which do not have sense."
Bacon sees two great divisions of time. The first, the reign of Saturn is the division of discord or chaos. The second, the reign of Jupiter is the division of concord or order. Bacon says: "By Saturn is meant matter itself; which, inasmuch as the sum total of matter remains always the same and the absolute quantum of nature suffers neither increase nor dimution, it is said to have deprived its parent of all power of generation. Now the agitations and motions of matter produced at first imperfect and ill-compacted structures of things, that would not hold together,- mere attempts at worlds. Afterwards in process of time a fabric was turned out which could keep its form. Of these two divisions of time, the first is meant by the reign of Saturn; who by reason of the frequent dissolutions and short durations of things in his time, was called the devourer of his children: the second, by the reign of Jupiter, who put an end to those continual and transitory changes, and thrust them into Tartarus--that is to say the place of perturbation; which place seems to be midway between the lowest parts of heaven and the innermost parts of the earth: in which middle region perturbation and fragility and mortality of corruption have their chief operation.
Bacon does not see the reign of discord as permanently thrust out, for he says there is a continual struggle between discord and concord, and implies that discord may yet again regain the reign of time: "With regard to the audacity of Pan in challenging Cupid to fight, it refers to this,- that matter is not without a certain inclination and appetite to dissolve the world and fall back into the ancient chaos; but that the overswaying concord of things (which is represented by Cupid or Love) restrains its will and effort in that direction and reduces it to order."
Fludd frequently refers to the pyramids of the sciences, a phrase originated and repeatedly used by Bacon.
Fludd reviews the arts and sciesces, urging their improvement. Natural philosophy, alchemy, medicine, he says, are all defective. As Frances Yates remarked, "Fludd's plea for the reform of the sciences has a Baconcian ring." Fludd dedicates books to King James as "ter Maximus" the very term used in dedication by Bacon. The identities are many: close contact with King James; the two closest friends the same; deep interest in the Advancement of Learning; identical cosmologies; ideas and expressions identical. Either Fludd was one of Bacon's masks (as I believe most probable) or they were extremely close. Another interesting feature to the story is that vault described in The Fame where Christian Rosencreutz was buried. We are told that the vault was a microcosm, "corresponding in all motions to the macrocosm..." We are told that this tomb was so constructed that if the Fraternity should come to nothing, all the knowledge of the fraternity could be restored again. And on Fludd's actual tomb stone the words were engraved, "..he who writes like thee-though dead- Erects a tomb that last for aye."
We know Bacon's scheme of thought was such it would indicate that he was interested in constructing such a microcosm. We also know that the place to look for the embodiment of his microcosm would be in his writings. Could the symbolic tomb of The Fame refer to written works such as the Plays which Bacon constructed as a tomb to preserve all his knowledge so if the Fraternity came to nothing, his knowledge could be restored? There is evidence pointing to a curious key concealed in The Fame which unlocks the door to his concealed writings. The vault is described as having seven sides, seven corners, and each side five feet by eight feet. This seems an unlikely description of the physical dimensions of any real vault, but it does give an interesting number. 7(5x8) + 7 = 287. This is a highly significant number as regards the concealed writings of Francis Bacon. In the book SECRET SHAKESPEAREAN SEALS a great deal of evidence is presented to demonstrate that many of the major works of the Elizabethan Renaissance were for some unknown reason marked with the number 287:
"Mr. Tanner was the first to call attention to the fact that in the verse to the reader opposite the Droeshout portrait in the Shakespeare Folio contains, including the heading and the initials at the foot, and counting correctly the four letters in the vvas and the five letters in vvrit a total of 287." The book goes on to enumerate a large number of these seals:
"To the Great Variety of Readers "
Words in roman type 279
italic words of large size 8 += 287
Ben Jonson's verses, 1st
talic words 289 Less:
two letters in turnover word 2 = 287
Hugh Holland's verses:
Roman letters 422 Plus:
Roman words in brackets 3 Less:
Italic letters in verse less(73) = 287
L. Digges and J.M.'s verses
Italic words 220 Plus:
Roman letters 67 = 287
Names of Actors
Italic letters 332 Less:
Roman letters (45)=287
seal repeated: on the first and last page of The Comedies
on the first and last page of The Histories
on the first and last page of The Tragedies
The elogium at the end of the volume in the hand of C.R.C. stated that he had "constructed a microcosm corresponding in all motions to the macrocosm." This gave further evidence that this Society was a scheme of Francis Bacon's, who was, himself, father R.C., because the microcosmic design was clearly evident not only in the entire vast scheme of his concealed works, but in the vast scheme of his system as set forth in his acknowledged works.
Frances Yates said The Tempest was "almost a Rosicrucian Manifesto." Had she been aware of certain concealed information in the play, she would have said it was THE Rosicrucian Manifesto. Consider the context of the island in The Tempest. This island to which the travelers arrive has a remarkable resemblance with the island to which the travelers arrive in the New Atlantis. In both cases travelers are driven by a storm to a strange island filled with wonders. In the New Atlantis we are told the wind which drove the ship arose from South with a point East (i.e. the direction in which the ship was driven was NBW). In The Tempest we are told, "SET THE DIAL AT NBW."
In the New Atlantis the island is that of the Rosicrucians, the abode of the magi who, through deep knowledge, have gained control over nature. In The Tempest the island is that of Prospero, the magus who through deep knowledge has gained control over nature.
In The Anatomy of Melancholy (first published in 1621, and generally recognized by the Baconians as a book put forth by Bacon under one of his many "masks") the author tells us casually that he will yet to please himself make a New Atlantis, the latitude (he says he respects not minutes) will be at 45 degrees, and for certain reasons he conceals the longitude. This interesting disclosure follows a page with the phrase, "We had need of some general visitor in our age that should reform what is amiss-a just army of Rosie-Cross men; for they will amend all matters, (they say) religion, policy, manners, with arts, sciences &c.", and this passage is placed between a reference to Verulamiam and St. Albans (both titles of Francis Bacon). A couple of pages further is a footnote Joh. Valent. Andreas, Lord Verulam. and still further a reference to the master of the fraternity of the Rosie Cross "the renewer (instaurator) of all arts and sciences, reformer of the world, and now living."
Now lets look at that "concealed" information in The Tempest. This also has to do with that mysterious message. Examine it carefully:
T = AT
THE = THE þ
I = SIT þ
B = F BACON ³
OBEY = TOBEY
It seems evident that the alternate pattern of the message (read up, read down) is arranged in such a manner as to indicate that the actual direction is to be read in both direction. That is, it is not only NBW, but also WBN. In addition, it must be borne in mind that the meaning can apply to facts in the great globe-the earth, as well as facts in the Intellectual Globe. We have already deduced the direction which applies to the Intellectual Globe. Strictly from a hypothetical standpoint lets assume the other direction applies to the material globe, and see if anything results from following it out. Begin with an Atlas. If Tunis is taken as the starting point a direction of West by North would at first run aground almost in the immediate vicinity of Tunis. If continued it would run aground again near the opening of the Gates of Hercules. The direction is generally toward the Atlantic Ocean, and the WBN setting seems to indicate some precise direction. Where do we go from here?
Lets go back and retrack abit. In the New Atlantis Bacon indicated the Carthaginians as ancient explorers who had been accustomed to making long sailing voyages into the Atlantic Ocean far west of the Gates of Hercules. We know that this very same point of debarkation of the Carthaginians was also the point of debarkation of the travelers in the play. Furthermore, there is that other peculiarity of the play. Although the setting is clearly in the Mediterrean Sea, there are many indications in the play which seem to point to a location and direction far west of the Gates of Hercules.
If we take these suggestions as directions then the insinuation is that we should use the Gates of Hercules as a starting point. Certainly this is in accordance with the whole idea of Bacon's Intellectual Globe and his Great Instauration, for which he used as a device for the frontpiece a ship in full sail which had just passed out beyond the Gates of Hercules.
As a landmark for our hypothetical exploration the, it seems there is clearly one question which we should begin by asking ourselves. The question is this: Suppose I used the Gates of Hercules as a starting point for an entrance into the Atlantic Ocean, where would a West By North course take me?
If a large globe and a flexible proptractor be used to plot a West by North course from the Gates of Hercules it will be seen this course touches Nova Scotia at about 45 degrees North Latitude. This ties in curiously with that passage in the Anatomy of Melancholy where the author says he will yet to please himself make a New Atlantis and the location will be latitude 45 degrees (he says he respects not minutes).
To the nearest whole degree, without respect to minutes, at 45 north latitude, right off the coast of Nova Scotia, lies one of the great enigmas of history. Precisely at the point where the mysterious messages in The Tempest and The Anatomy of Melancholy direct. This enigma is Oak Island, the location of a mystery which has puzzled searchers, and given rise to bizarre theories for almost two centuries. It began one day in 1795 when a 16 year old boy, Daniel McInnes paddled over from Nova Scotia to the deserted Oak Island. At one end of the island he noticed an odd depression about 12 feet in diameter. Sixteen feet above it, on a sawed-off limb of a huge old oak tree, hung an old ship's tackle-block. The mind of the boy was immediately fired with visions of buried treasure, for the area was much frequented by pirates. The next day McInnes returned with two friends and began digging. Ten feet down they hit a platform of aged oak logs; at 20 feet another; and at 30 feet still another. Finally the boys were forces to stop digging.
In 1804 Daniel McInnes and Jack Smith (one of those who had tried to dig up the treasure with him nine years before, settled on the island. A wealthy Nova Scotian (Simson Lynds) joined them and they began to dig again. Again they found oak tiers every ten feet down the pit. They also uncovered layers of tropical coconut fiber, charcoal and ship's putty, plus a stone cut with curious symbols which has never been deciphered. At 93 feet they drove a crowbar five feet deeper and struck a solid mass.
The next morning they hurried back to uncover what they were sure must be the treasure chest only to find 60 feet of water in the pit. Weeks of fruitless bailing followed. The water level remained constant. The following year hired miners dug 110 feet down, off to one side of the pit, then began burrowing toward it. When only two feet away tons of water burst through. They barely managed to scramble to safety before water filled the shaft to the same level as the pit. Not until 1849 was another attempt made to find what was in the mysterious pit. This time at 98 feet down (just where the crowbar had hit the solid mass in 1804) a horse-driven pod auger (which picked up a sample of anything it passed through) pierced a spruce platform. It then dropped through an empty space before it cut through four inches of oak, 22 inches of loose metal pieces, four more inches of oak, six inches of spruce, and into deep clay.
To the drillers this suggested an exciting prospect- a vault con- taining two chests, one atop the other, laden with treasure, perhaps coins or jewels. Moreover the auger brought up a tantalizing sample of what was there,- three links of a gold chain! In 1850, while digging a second 110 foot shaft, it was discovered the water was salt water. This led the searchers to search the beach for a conduit.
When the sandy beach was stripped in the search for a hidden inlet, however, the treasure hunters to their astonishment, found tons of coconut fiber and eel grass under the sand on a stone floor which stretched 154 feet wide, the full distance between high and low tide marks. Five rock-walled box drains were found slanting in from the sea and down, converging on a line aimed at the Pit.
The construction had been designed to cause the beach to act as a gigantic sponge soaking up and filtering tidewater into a conduit. This conduit dropped 70 feet straight down and then sloped back to a point deep in the Pit, all of it filled with loose rock to prevent erosion. This brilliant baffle was no natural obstacle; it was the work of a genius. At around 98 feet the diggers had unwittingly lessened the pressure of earth that plugged the mouth of the conduit. A cofferdam was built to hold back the sea. The sea promptly wrecked it. The treasure hunters dug 118 feet down and burrowed under the Pit. While they were at dinner the bottom of the Pit collapsed into the tunnel then dropped even further into a mysteriously empty space. A series of costly expeditions followed, all dogged by bad luck. In 1893, almost a century after excavation first began, still another syndicate was organized, this time by a Nova Scotia business man who was to spend almost 60 years trying to solve the mystery.
His company was the first to locate the flood-tunnel outlet, 111 feet down the side of the Pit. Dynamite was set off deep underground near the shore at Smith's Cove to block it at the source. After filling the Money Pit with water, well above sea level, a red dye was thrown in. Not a trace of it seeped back to Smith's Cove - proof that the dynamite had been successful. But on the opposite shore of the island, 300 feet from the Pit, red stains appeared in three places.
There was at least one more flood tunnel to cope with! It still has not been found.
The company also resorted to core-drilling in the Pit. At 153 feet, the deepest yet, the bit chewed into seven inches of cement, five of oak, 32 inches of metal pieces, then more oak and cement. At 170 feet it rattled against impenetrable iron. To the searchers this meant a chest encased in concrete, larger and deeper than the onces drilled through in 1850. This time, along with flecks of gold, the bit brought up a tiny scrap of parchment bearing the letters vi-written with a quill pen and india ink. The searchers claimed, "Either a treasure of immense value or priceless historical documents are at the bottom of that pit." But after spending more than $100,000 the syndicate folded.
Only Blair carried on. He was followed by several prominent financiers, including a young lawyer named Franklin D. Roosevelt, and by various syndicates, all failed. In 1931, William Chappel, of Sydney, Nova Scotia, a wealthy contractor, tried. The Depression made him quit. Chappel was followed in 1936 by Gilbert Hedden, a New Jersey millionaire who spent $100,000 more. Hedden ran submarine power lines from the mainland to drive high speed pumps, and hired a Pennsylvania mining firm to clear the 170 foot shaft. He finally concluded that all the digging and flooding had probably shifted the treasure as much as 100 feet in any direction.
At the time of Blair's death in 1951, Oak Island, and its treasure rights, were acquired by William Chappell's son, Mel, who had worked with his father's expedition in 1931. Mel Chappel spent $25,000 on one excavation, which quickly became a small lake, then leased portions of his rights to a series of other fortune hunters, the latest being Bob Restall, of Hamilton, Ontario. According to mining experts, the elaborate safeguards in the Pit could have been built only by an engineering wizard with plenty of help - and plenty to hide. As Petroleum engineer George Greene put it in 1955, after drilling on Oak Island for a syndicate of Texas oilmen, "Someone went to a lot of trouble to bury something here. And unless he was the greatest practical joker of all time, it must have been well worth the effort."
Was it just co-incidence that the direction in The Tempest sets a course directly to Oak Island; that the passage referring to the New Atlantis in The Anatomy of Melancholy gives its latitude, or is there other evidence to connect Francis Bacon with this strange enigma? Is there, for example, any way to determine the date of the work at Oak Island? When McInnes discovered the pit in the summer of 1795 there was a huge old oak tree with a thick limb about 15 feet up which had been cut off several feet from the trunk. Beneath the end of this limb the ground was settled into a shaddow, saucer shapped depression. It was evident whoever buried whatever was in the pit had used this limb in their work.
The tree with its cut off limb which had been used as a hoisting support was a red oak. it was a mature tree when the project was created. According to Harvard University's Harvard Forest division at Petersham, Massachusetts, Nova Scotia red oaks commonly live for 300 years. At an age of 70 years a tree would have an 18 inch diameter trunk and branches stout enough to support hoisting equip- ment. If, for argument's sake, the tree in question was at or near seventy, the project could date back to 1565. But according to experts it is possible for a red oak to live 350 years. A date as early as 1515 could not be ruled out, however, the chances are for a date later than 1515 and even later than 1565, since the average life of the red oak is 300 years and the odds are against the tree having been used at the earliest possible date it could have been used. How late could it have been used? A trading post existed as early as 1753 on the island just 5 miles from Oak Island indicating the waters in the vicinity were traversed with some regularity from that time on. Also at that time the surrounding mainland was attracting its first permanent settlers. Since the work at Oak Island would have required a considerable number of people and a considerable activity it must have taken place before this date. The probable date then was after 1565 and before 1753. Can this date be fixed more precisely? The greatest problem faced by the designer of the pit at Oak Island was the direction of the flood tunnels. Those involved working in a cramped, dimly lite tunnel, burrowing 500 feet underground. They needed some method to follow a course so they would strike the Money Pit exactly. There is evidence at Oak Island that a great triangle was laid out with the three corners marked by rocks, and that the prevailing magnetic variation was worked out from this triangulation so the under- ground excavators could burrow to the Pit by using compasses. The lines and angles in the triangular layout indicate that the works were lain out in a year when the compass variation from North was 14 degrees. Two years when this variation existed were 1611, and 1780. Since 1780 is excluded, then it appears that the most likely date for the excavation was 1611. This is very interesting since this was the very year that The Tempest was written!
The fact that the oak chest encased in cement was at a depth of exactly 153 feet may also be significant. This was the number (as Alastair Fowler demonstrated in his book Triumphal Form) used in The Shakespeare Sonnets in connection with the idea of storing a treasure which would be immune to the ravages of time!
Thomas Leary wrote an entire book in which he put forth a great deal of information which, in his opinion, all tended to demonstrate that Francis Bacon had been the guiding genius behind the enigma at Oak Island. Leary said that the only reasonable answer to the burial at Oak Island was that some superior intelligence abroad "was directing the burial of something which could not safely be seen or known in that time. It must be hidden in a way that would defeat the most persistent attempts at recovery. Yet it must be preserved at all costs in order that its contents be known to future generations." He shows that many of the specifics of the way the burial at Oak Island had been designed had been described in detail in various of Bacon's works.
Some of these details in Bacon's works are extremely striking. For example, in the Sylva Sylvarum, Bacon says:
"..herein is contained also a great Secret of Preservation of Bodies from Change; For if you can prohibit, that they neither turne into Aire, because no air comes to them; nor goes into the bodies adjacent...We see how flies and spiders, and the like, get a sepulcher in amber more durable than the monument, and embalming of the body of any king, and I conceive the like will be of bodies put into quicksilver."
A pile of flasks which had contained quicksilver was found at Oak Island and core drilling showed there was quicksilver in the vault. The group must have been busy on Oak Island for years before the actual excavation at the pit began. Core drilling has shown the entire island is honey combed with caverns far under the ground. The pit was probably just the culmination of the work there. There must have been a large group there. Such a group, being provisioned from England, and being connected with Francis Bacon, could scarcely have escaped attention. Why is there no record of this? Or is there? John Dee and Francis Bacon were connected with the Rosicrucian phenomena, and probably Walter Raleigh also. Francis Bacon and Thomas Phellips visited John Dee at Mortlake on August 11, 1582. It is curious that just at this time an activity was going on at Mortlake which may well have had a connection with the Oak Island Enigma.
At this precise time Dee and the group around him at Mortlake were feverishly making plans for an ocean boyage by Raleigh and his half brother Humprey Gilbert. Dee was at the center of the activity since it was he who drew up the maps and the navigational instructions. Gilbert and Raleigh had made a mysterious voyage in 1578 with ten ships well armed and well supplied. Two of his biographers Adamson and Folland say that the voyage remains one of the major puzzles relating to Raleigh's life. It has never been explained.
At the last moment Elizabeth decided she could not spare Raleigh for this second voyage. It was just as well. Gilbert never returned. The word brought back by another ship was that he went down with his ship and 100 men just off the coast of Nova Scotia.
His last moments were described in details very similar to the opening scene of The Tempest. The ship encountered a tempest. St. Elmo's fire flamed over the yardarm while the tempest raged. A religious overtone was present as in the play - throughout the entire tempest Gilbert sat in a chair on deck reading his Bible! About midnight the ship with her entire crew was swallowed by the Atlantic. The sad news was brought back to England by the twin ship, the Golden Hart. Everyone was devastated. Maybe not everyone. Is it possible there were those in England who were privy to the knowledge that the ship had not gone down, and that its crew was busy on Oak Island?
Rudyard Kipling once became disgruntled with the critics general lack of understanding of Shakespeare's creative processes, and, being some- what intimate with the intricacies of inspiration himself, decided he would set them straight. So he wrote an imaginary description of the creation of The Tempest. Shakespeare was in a tavern and heard a sailor describing some of the incidents which were later published in the accounts of the wreck of Sir George Somers and Sir Thomas Gates in the Sea Adventure on Bermuda in 1609. This account caused an entire array of thoughts to begin to mesh in Shakespeare's mind. Soon the whole structure of The Tempest took shape.
Kipling's narrative was a convincing description of the creative imagination at work, but what he did not know, and could not show, was an understanding of the nature of the particular creative artist with whom he was dealing, and of the work with which he was dealing. The information developed thus far in this chapter should give the reader a step up on Kipling. Bacon wanted to achieve definite ends. He was constructing a model in accordance with his Intellectual Globe concept. He built into this model of the universe what he perceived as the quiddity of the universe,-the array of all pervasive, exquisitely balanced, opposites. He also built a model demonstrating the operation of his discovery device using as subject of inquiry the "form" of the existing state of the advancement of learning. In addition to this he incorporated information about his secret vault and secret society.
All of this would have been amazing enough, but we are still the blindmen who, under their curse of darkness, grope about the body of the elephant. The true nature of the play eludes us still - the "wholeness" remains ungrasped. But suppose the blind men had pooled their knowledge and attempted to construct a composite? Could they have managed to catch, no matter how inadequate, a glimpse of The Elephant? The experiment may be worthwhile. In this case the elephant is The Tempest. By collating the descriptions of the various commentators, I will to attempt to contstruct a composite model.
In every generation there have been people who have felt for knowledge beyond that of the orthodox and accepted systems of their day. In every generation, a few have arrived at the understanding that in order to have any real significance such knowledge must enter the realm of the supernatural.
The people who formed the original nucleus of the Theosophic Society called themselves "The Miracle Club." Those who eventually contacted Gurdjieff saw their quest as a "Search for the Miraculous." But there are miracles which do not necessarily imply knowledge or being higher than that of ordinary man. More interesting is a very special type of art. Gurdjieff described a strange figure he came across at the foot of the Hindu Kush. At first it seemed to be a mere curiosity-some ancient god or devil. Eventually he realized that in every detail it contained a big, complete, and complex system of cosmology. That it even had the power to convey the thoughts and emotions of its builders. Another of these artifacts is the Great Pyramid. It is not without reason that this amazing structure has been called a "Miracle in Stone."
Artifacts exist which were constructed by supermen. Just as there is something miraculous in the nature of superman, so there is something miraculous in the nature of such artifacts. Although such artifacts may be recognized as remarkable, however, their real nature has usually remained undetected because they transcend the being of man. Each entity's ability to perceive is based on its being. Things readily perceived by man transcend the perception of a dog. Things readily perceived by superman transcend the perception of a man.
John Steinbeck described his tour of America in a pickup truck customized into a camper with a small dog as a travelling companion. The dog had constant problems with its bladder and, whenever Steinbeck pulled off the road would go dashing off to find a tree at the base of which to relieve itself. Steinbeck was in California, driving south one day toward San Francisco and had began to pass through the famous redwood forests when he spied a tree which was a veritable monster of its kind. He was suddenly titilated with the idea of a kind of canine Mt. Everest. When his little dog cocked his leg against that collosus it would attain the summit to which its species could aspire! Steinbeck steered the pickup off the highway, came to a stop close to the monster tree, opened the door, and the little dog rushed out.
To Steinbeck's surprise it ran right past the giant red wood. Steinbeck called it back and let it go again. It ran past the redwood again. Steinbeck proceeded to go through everything he could think of to bring the tree to the attention of the little dog. Finally, having exhausted all his resources, he realized the redwood went right off the scale of what the dog perceived as a tree. The dog couldn't become aware of the tree, to the dog it did not exist, at least not as a tree. In a similar fashion, artifacts constructed by supermen go undetected by man.
The Tempest is such an artifact. The term Bacon himself used in his New Organum was, "Miracle of Art." He expressed concern that those extraordinary models he intended to put forth, those "Miracles of Art" might "astonish and bind and bewitch" the intellect of those who contemplated them. Like Steinbeck, he had no idea they might not be able to perceive them at all!
The Tempest is a very strange and complex work. On the surface it seems pellucid, but the deeper one peers into those pellucid depths, the more one realizes there must always remain depth upon depth beyond. All commentators who have made any real study of the play have begun to realize there is something unusual there. Mark Van Doren warned the reader that "The Tempest is a composition about which we had better not be too knowing...it seems to order itself in terms of meanings which are not 'self-evident', but which are subject to a variety of interpretations, even contradictory ones, and of which even the wildest is more or less plausible."
The The Tempest should be committed to memory so that, in so far as possible, all of it is held in the mind at one time. Complete familiarity with both the commentaries on The Tempest and with the scheme of Bacon's thought brings the understanding that the "meanings" are not contradictory. They all fit together to make one whole. The picture en totale which emerges is astounding. The perception of The Tempest by the various commentators, in contrast with the totality of the work, is so much like the perceptions of the blind men in contrast with the elephant itself as to be uncanny. Each commentator perceived a fragment. Each believed his perception was the whole. But all fitted together to make that whole.
Bacon used several devices to achieve his effect. In The Masculine Birth of Time he said:
"Nevertheless it is important to understand how the present is like a seer with two faces, one looking toward the future, the other toward the past. Accordingly I have decided to prepare for your instruction tables of both ages, containing not only the past course and progress of science, but also anticipations of things to come. The nature of these tables you could not conjecture before you see them. A genuine anticipation of them is beyond your scope...".
Hence Bacon constructed each of his models so they reflected both the macrocosm and the microcosm; and, at the same time, had two faces - one looking toward ancient knowledge, and one toward future knowledge. In The Tempest, as in each of the plays, Bacon embodied both the old world of received knowledge (symbolized by the Mediterranean - the center of the ancient world), and the New World of the Sciences (symbolized by the new world - America). In his amazing system of correspondences he set up in the system of his Intellectual Globe the New World of the Science had to be discovered by a sailing voyage of discovery (just as America had been), and this voyage had to utilize his Intellectual Compass which corresponded on the Intellectual Globe to the mariners compass on the physical globe. Therefore, the setting of The Tempest was both within the Mediterranean Sea, and in the New World, far west of the Mediterranean Sea and Gates of Hercules, at the same time! Hallet Smith says, in his The Tempest as Kaleidoscope:
"The 'uninhabited island,' as the Folio calls it, which is the scene of The Tempest, is apparently somewhere in the Mediterranean, since the shipwrecked characters in the play were en route from Tunis to Italy. Yet the imagery of the play and some of the descriptive detail concerning the island strongly suggest the New World across the Atlantic."
In its symbolic setting in the Old World of received knowledge The Tempest is an amazingly comprehensive allegory of the Ancient Mysteries. * The italics are mine. Bacon's writings are filled with revealing passages like this. It is amazing they should have been read so often, and so long, without these flags being seen, but then again, how many times would Steinbeck's little dog have continued to run past the redwood without seeing it?
Colin Still has an entire book on the Mystery Religion Allegory in The Tempest. This book, Shakespeare's Mystery Play, can be consulted by those who wish to go more deeply into this aspect of the allegory in The Tempest. Bacon saw his Intellectual Globe as an apocalypse, or true vision, of the footsteps of the Creator imprinted on his creatures. His introductory piece to his Intellectual Globe is fashioned in this image since he sees the play as a vision or an apocalypse. Bacon utilizes artistic conceits to build the themes of his works, and this is one of the artistic conceits used with The Tempest. It is an apocalypse. This is underlined in that famous speech of Prospero's which epitomizes the play:
"Our revels now are ended. These our actors, As I foretold you, were all spirits and Are melted into air, into thin air; And, like the baseless fabric of this vision..."
Apocalyptic literature traditionally dealt with some visionary revelation received while in a trance state. The most famous example of the genre is the last book in the Bible, The Apocalypse of Ioannes, better known as The Book of Revelations. The ultimate source of the tradition was the Ancient Mysteries in which (while plunged in a deep, entranced sleep) the soul of the neophyte wandered in the after world, first through hades and the lower realms of this sphere, until finally arriving at the Isles of the Blest-The Elysian Fields.
The period during which the soul wandered there while out of the physical body varied, but was usually for three days. As the last stage of its tenure of the After World the soul was granted a vision, just as Ferdinand was granted a vision (the masque) after he had wandered through the island and had undergone certain labors. The import of this theme is if we will undergo the necessary labors also a vision awaits us -- the vision of science and the benefit it can bring to the estate of man.
At the same time this apocalyptic theme ties in with The Tempest as a model of the universe since Bacon follows the Vedantic idea that it is an illusory universe. He builds on this to expand into the basic quiddity of the play. The Mysteries took place on the equinoxes. The equinox (equipose between light and darkness, between opposites) is the basic fabric which composes the illusory structure of the universe. In addition to this Bacon uses the artistic device of the idea of a "travelers tale" brought back by those who have travelled to strange and far away lands, and brought back an account of the wonders they saw and paints into this particular "travelers tale" a faithful depictation not of some strange land, but of a model of the entire universe, a model which can be viewed as a whole from the perspective of either the macrocosm or the microcosm.
From either perspective the comprehensiveness of the model is amazingly. the scene in The Tempest at the beginning of the play where Ariel and his fellows flame a simulation of St. Elmo's fire through the masts of the ship. If we view this scene from the perspective of the microcosm or individual, what is represented is the physiological St. Elmo's fire which Bacon termed "spirits." This has been described upon occasion by psychics, but is unknown to ordinary man. Some of the best descriptions are in the autobiography THE MAGIC STAFF of the famous American seer Andrew Jackson Davis:
"The auricles and ventricles, together with their orifices gave out distinct flames of light...The pulmonary or respitorial department was also illuminated with beautiful flames..."
"From the brain I saw the diversified current of life of magnetic fire, as they flowed through the system."
Bacon always spoke with absolute certainty regarding the existence of what he referred to as the spirits which were possessed by all living creatures. The detail he describes concerning these spirits: "played like a living flame about the body of living creatures", reveals that he possessed psychic vision comparable to that of Davis. This physiological level phenomena. Psycho-physiological level phenomena deals with what takes place in the internal drama experienced at the beginning of the initiation experience when the initiate is in the process of leaving his body. The ship represents the body, the mariners entranced below decks symbolize the entranced state of the initiate. The lightning and thunder lashes the storm tossed ship. John A. Weisse describing the ritual of the Eleusinia said, "Soon the thunder rolled, lightning flashed, strange and fearful objects appeared, and the place seemed to shake and be on fire, hideous spectres glided through the building moaning and sighing, frightful noises and howling were heard." Ferdinand, with hair up-starting-then like reeds, not hair, leaped overboard, crying, "Hell is empty, and all the devils are here." Oliver Fox in his book ASTRAL PROJECTION described parallel experiences he had while leaving his physical body:
"There may also be flashes of light, apparitions, and (almost certainly) terrifying noises...the pale golden light increases to a blaze of glory and a veritable inferno of strange sounds assails his ears...If the attempt succeeds, he will have the extraordinary sensation of passing through the door in his brain and hearing it "click" behind him; but he will not seem to be out of his body yet. It will appear to him that his fluidic self has again subsided within his physical body; but the terrifying sounds and apparitions are no more, and the room is evenly illuminated by the pale golden radiance. There is a blessed sense of calm after storm..."
One notes the correspondence to this in the constrast after the initial tempest with Prospero and Miranda in the calmness of their cell.
At the psychological level the drama is that of the functioning of the various faculties within the psyche of one man. The action should be initiated and directed by the understanding, but the will and its associated faculties have surplanted the office of the understanding. The action (initiated and directed by the will at the beginning) flows onward to the scene with Caliban, Stephano, and Trinuculo who represent the appetites which are shown as operating without direction from the understanding. As the play proceeds this disorder is shown as being changed until the correct order is reestablished, and the understanding finally is in full control initiating, directing, and controlling the will and the appetites.
To view the play solely from the broad perspective of the macrocosm or microcosm is to miss the true multiplicity of levels in the play. It is not enough to say the play can be viewed in its apparent setting in the Mediterranean, in which case it is a comprehensive allegory of the Ancient Mystery Religions-a digest of ancient knowledge; or it can be viewed in its suggestive setting arising from certain imagery and descriptive detail as beyond the Gates of Hercules in the New World, in which case it is a comprehensive allegory of a logic machine; or it can be viewed as the ritual of a secret society (Alfred Dodd has shown there is a comprehensive masonic allegory extending throughout the play originally the masons and rosicrucians seem to have been one). It is necessary to descend into the detail demonstating these divisions. In order to give some idea of what I am referring to, consider the opening of the play once again:
A ship at sea is caught in a terrible tempest. The tempest roars; balls of fire roll through the masts of the ship; the mariners are work desperately to save it. The ship cannot run free before the wind because the storm forces it toward a nearby island. It is in danger of striking the rocks, spliting, and sinking.
The mariners attempt to prevent the ship from drifting leeward by lowering the topmast, thus removing some of the weight aloft. But the tempest continues to drive the ship toward the island and in the midst of their desperate labors the Boatswain must contend with the meddling of the nobility aboard the ship. Finally all is given up for lost. The Boatswain takes to drink. The King, his son, and his counselor to prayers, and the brother of the King, and the Duke of Milan to cursing. The ship strikes, splits, and all aboard are lost. All except the mariners abandon ship, leaping wildly into the tempest tossed waves.
The scene seems to plunge the viewer into the midst of unqualified and unequivocal realism. However, there is much more the apparent to the scene. The episode is not merely a point in a single, linear flow of ideas, but a nexus of many facets, each of which displays a perfectly valid context of meaning, and each of which flows on along its steam of action and of significance.
In order to clarify this let me summarize some of these facets, or alternative levels of meaning which are contained in this single scene:
1. There is a tempest, the ship splits and begins to sink, the passengers leap overboard and swim to the safety of the island.
2. There is a tempest, the ship splits and begins to sink, the passengers leap overboard and all drown, and the remainder of the action in the play takes place in The World Beyond.
3. There is no tempest at all, the passengers and mariners are subjected to the illusion of a tempest while the ship glides to a safe harbor at the island.
4. None of what is happening is real. It is all a dream. Prospero was never exiled, but asleep in his bed in Milan is dreaming the whole thing.
5. The drama does not deal with actual passengers on a ship at all, but is a depiction of souls in the process of descending into incarnation in the earth.
6. The drama is an alchemic allegory, dealing with the separation process which takes place in the midst of the fiery tempest of the alchemical vessal.
7. The drama deals with the internal processes in one individual. It describes the physio-psychological process at the beginning of the initiation experience when the subtle body goes through the process of separation from the gross body.
8. The scene is a symbolic episode in the Allegory of Learning, showing the ship of discovery approaching the Island of Truth. This island, as Bacon remarks, "is lapped by a mighty ocean in which many intellects will still be wrecked by the gales of illusion." The old, false knowledge, must suffer shipwreck before the traveler can be cast ashore on the island of truth.
9. The drama depicts an episode in a morality play. We see the Ship of Humanity, containing the World, the Flesh, and the Devil; as well as the Good Man, the Fool, and the man of Appetites, being shipwrecked and cast ashore on the Island of Divine Providence.
10. The drama gives a model of the Art of Government, and represents the Ship of State running aground and suffering shipwreck due to bad State Policy.
11. The drama gives a model of the Art of Judgement exhibiting a dialectic turning on the ways in which a man must, and must not, understand and assess the world of human experience. 12. The drama is an episode in a Cosmological Model showing the strife and fury in the beginning stages of creation.
13. The scene gives an episode in the operation of a logic machine, exhibiting the manner in which the natures in some particular object in nature are separated using the intellectual fire in the application of the logic machine.
14. The drama gives a model of the Fall of Man.
15. The drama gives a model of the Fall of the Angels.
16. The drama is a model of the doctrine of spirits in man showing how they operate in the inner organism.
17. The is a model of the doctrine of spirits in the universal frame of nature, showing how they operate in all matter.
18. The drama is a model of "free generations" in nature depicting how generation occurs in the natural course of nature.
19. The drama is a model of Civil History giving a notable example of a ruling unit complete with king, counselor, and lords, caught in the storm of some state emergency.
20. The drama is a model of the dispensation of deity toward man, showing how the good are preserved, and the evil are punished through the providential actions of God toward men.
21. The drama is a model of the Motion of Gain, depicting how in the actions of motions, when bodies are placed among heterogeneous and hostile bodies they attempt to escape to unite themselves with more cognate bodies.
22. The drama is a model dealing with sophism and deceptive appearances which requires confutation.
When one begins to glimpse this multiplicity of facets of meaning the play begins to assume miraculous dimensions. One harkens back to Mark Van Doren warning the reader that "The Tempest...seems to order itself in terms of meanings which are not 'self-evident', but which are subject to a variety of interpretations, even contradictory ones, and of which even the wildest is more or less plausible", and it is now evident that the contra- diction is due to the accustomed linear thinking of the commentators. Actually all the "variety of interpretations" merge into one unity from a true holoistic overview of the play. If Bacon had been a man and had wished to create a model showing the operation of discovery device into the "form" of the existing state of the advancement of learning he would have been satisfied with that alone. But Bacon was a superman. What he created was a model which shows at one and the same time an overview of all aspects of knowledge, of the entire subject of the advancement of learning! The two books of the Advancement of Learning were expanded into the nine books of the De Augmentis with the first books of the De Augmentis paralleling the first book of the Advancement and books two through nine paralleling the second book of the Advancement. In The Tempest, Bacon took the nine books of the De Augmentis and recast them into the nine scenes of the play. The first book of the De Augmentis deals with an overview or survey of learning showing its history and defects. The second part (books two through nine) deals with an with anatomy of learning, showing all of its divisions. These divisions constitute an outline of Bacon's Intellectual Globe. I will next consider The Tempest under the headings of The Allegory of Learning (corresponding to book one of the De Augmentis) and of the divisions of learning covering most of the following:
ANATOMY OF THE INTELLECTUAL GLOBE
1110 FREE GENERATIONS-Ordinary Course of Nature
1120 PRAETER-GENERATIONS-Nature Obstructed
The Works and Acts of Nature
The Works and Acts of Man
1110 FREE GENERATIONS
PRATER-GENERATIONS- NATURE OBSRUCTED
1130 ARTS-Things Artificial
EARTH & SEA
GREATER MASSES-The Element
1200 CIVIL HISTORY:
3211.313 EARTH & SEA
3211.314 GREATER MASSES (THE ELEMENTS)
3211.321 SCHEMATISMS OF MATTER
3211.322 APPETITES & MOTIONS
3211.321 SCHEMATISMS OF MATTER
DENSITY,RARITY,GRAVITY,LEVITY HEAT,COLD,TANGIBILITY,INTANGIBILITY, VOLATILE,FIXED,DETERMINATE,FLUID HUMID,DRY,UNCTUOUS,CRUDE,HARD,SOFT FRAGILE,TENSILE,POROUS,UNITED,SPIRITUOUS, JEJUNE,SIMPLE,COMPOUND,ABSOLUTE,IMPERFECTLY MIXED,FIBROUS,SIMPLE POSITION,SIMILAR, DISSIMILAR,SPECIFICATE,UNSPEC.,ORGANICAL, INORGANICAL,ANIMATE,INANIMATE 3211.322 APPETITES & MOTIONS 3211.323 SIMPLE MOTIONS 3211.324 COMPOUND MOTIONS 3211.323 SIMPLE MOTIONS
1. RESISTANCE 2. CONNECTION 3. LIBERTY 4. MATTER 5. CONTINUITY 6. WANT 7. GREATER CONGREGATION 8. LESSER CONGREGATION 9. MAGNETIC 10. FLIGHT 11. ASSIMULATION 12. EXCITATION 13. IMPRESSION 14. CONFIGURATION 15. TRANSITION 16. ROYAL 17. ROTATION 18. TREPIDATION 19. REPOSE 3211.324 COMPOUND MOTIONS
3211.324.1. GENERATION 2. CORRUPTION 3. INCREASE 4. DIMINUTION 5. ALTERATION 6. TRANSLATION 7. MIXTION 8. SEPARATION 9. CONVERSION 3212 METAPHYSICS 3212.1 INQUIRY INTO FORMS 3212.2 INQUIRY INTO FINAL CAUSES 3220 OPERATIVE 3221 MECHANICS-Physics in Practice 3222 MAGIC-Metaphysics in Practice
3300 MAN 3310 MAN SEGREGATE-HUMAN 3320 MAN CONGREGATE-CIVIL 3310 MAN SEGREGATE 3311 BODY 3312 SOUL 3311 BODY 3311.1 MEDICINAL
3311.10 Preservation of Health 3311.20 Cure of Diseases 3311.30 Prolongation of Life 3312 SOUL 3312.1 SUBSTANCE 3312.2 FACULTIES 3312.1 SUBSTANCES 3312.10 INSPIRED ESSENCE 3312.11 PRODUCED SOUL 3312.11 PRODUCED SOUL 3313.12 MOTION 3312.13 SENSE 3312.2 FACULTIES 3312.20 LOGIC 3312.21 ETHICS
3312.20 LOGIC 3312.200 INQUIRY 3312.300 JUDGEMENT 3312.400 CUSTODY 3312.500 DELIVERY
3312.200 INQUIRY 3312.210 LITERATE EXPERIENCE 3312.220 NOVUM ORGANUM
3312.300 JUDGEMENT 3312.310 INDUCTION 3312.320 SYLLOGISM
3312.320 SYLLOGISM 3312.321 DIRECT REDUCTION 3312.322 INVERSE REDUCTION 3312.322 INVERSE REDUCTION 3312.322.1 ANALYTICS 3312.322.2 CONFUTATIONS 3312.322.2 CONFUTATIONS
3312.322.20 OF SOPHISMS 3312.322.30 INTERPRETATIONS 3312.322.40 OF IDOLS
3312.322.40 OF IDOLS 3312.322.41 IDOLA TRIBUS 3312.322.42 IDOLA SPECUS 3312.322.43 IDOLA FORI 3312.400 CUSTODY
3312.410 AIDS TO MEMORY 3312.420 NATURE OF MEMORY
3312.420 NATURE OF MEMORY 3312.421 PRENOTION 3312.422 EMBLEM
3312.510 ORGAN 3312.520 METHOD 3312.530 ORNAMENT
3312.520 METHOD 3312.521 DOCTRINAL 3312.522 INITIATIVE
3312.210 MODELS OF GOOD 3312.220 GEORGICS OF THE MIND
3312.210 MODELS OF GOOD 3312.211 ABSOLUTE GOOD 3312.212 COMPARATIVE GOOD 3312.212 COMPARATIVE GOOD 3312.213 PERSONAL GOOD 3312.214 NATIONAL GOOD 3312.220 GEORGICS OF THE MIND 3312.221 CHARACTERISTICS 3312.222 AFFECTIONS 3312.223 REMEDIES AND CURES 3320 MAN CONGREGATE-CIVIL PRUDENCE 3321 ART OF CONVERSATION 3322 ART OF NEGOTIATION 3323 ART OF STATE POLICY
The opening scene of The Tempest is an allegory of the fallen state THE ALLEGORY of man. Man was created king of the earth, to rule over OF LEARNING the elements. In the opening scene the elements rule rather than man,- an emblem of the fallen state.
The theme of the Great Instauration was that just as man had lost his Edenic state through the improper use of knowledge, so likewise he could recover it through the proper use of knowledge. This was the message of The Tempest also. Like Adam, Prospero had fallen by an inordinate thirst for knowledge, but by the correct use of knowledge he regained his lost estate. The solicitude which accompanied Adam and Eve when "the world was all before them" went also with Prospero and Miranda when they set out in their "rotten carcase of a butt."
"By foul play, as thou say'st were we heav'd thence, But blessedly holp hither." They came ashore "by Providence divine"; and Gonzalo left no doubt that Prospero's fault, like Adam's, was a happy one: "Was Milan thrust from MIlan, that his issue should become Kings of Naples? O rejoice beyond a common joy!" Learning was given great emphasis in the play. Both the danger and value of learning were summed up. Learning was a great aid to virtue (the play said along with Bacon), the road by which we may love and imitate God. MIranda, the epitome of virtue was capable of learning. Caliban was not incapable, but turned it to the wrong use: "Though thou didst learn, had that in't which good natures Could not abide to be with."
Therefore, he remained irredeemable almost to the very end of the play. The device of the sailing voyage of discovery was equated with learning by Bacon. We see it on the title page of the "Great Instauration." It appears frequently in the Advancement; it is the theme of the New Atlantis. The Masculine Birth of Time says, "In fact had not political conditions and prospects put an end to these mental voyages, many another coast of error would have been visited by those mariners. For the island of truth is lapped by a mighty ocean in which many intellects will still be wrecked by the gales of illusion." It is no coincidence that in The Tempest (first in the folio of Bacon's unacknowledged works) there was such a close resemblance to both the first and last among his acknowledged works. The play paints a lively allegory of the Ship of Discovery sailing forth to arrive at a strange island (surely the island of truth) wherein is the Magus, symbol of human learning in complete control of nature.
Here the party is shipwrecked. Or was there a shipwreck? Certainly the passengers thought there was a shipwreck, and certainly Miranda, who was watching, thought there was a shipwreck:
"O' I have suffered With those that I saw suffer: a brave vessel (Who had, no doubt, some noble creature in her,) Dash'd all to pieces. O' the cry did knock Against my very heart: Poor souls, they perish'd:" Yet Prospero had been watching also, and he had quite another inter- pretation of the scene: "The direful spectacle of the wrack, which touch'd The very virtue of compassion in thee, I have with such provision in mine Art So safely ordered, that there is no soul- No, not so much perdition as an hair Betid to any creature in the vessel Which thou heard'st cry, which thou saw'st sink."
And next came the report of Ariel: "Safely in harbour Is the King's ship;" That wraps it up, there was no shipwreck. The Tempest, that great storm which the passengers and Miranda witnessed, did not take place at all. It was only the gales of illusion. The shipwreck, yea the very tempest itself was illusionary. This illusionary tempest gives the play its name. Like the sailing voyage of the ship of learning, and the island of truth, the metaphor is constantly on Bacon's mind, and pen. Prospero and Miranda are depicted as engaged, while the tempest rages, in looking out from the vantage ground of their cell, as from a window from a higher world, or of a world apart, at the ship with all its perturbed souls tossed in the tempest. The island from which they watched was the Island of Truth, so it was altogether appropriate that the key to the allegory should come from Bacon's essay on Truth: "It is a pleasure to stand upon the shore and see ships tossed upon the sea; a pleasure to stand in the window of a castle and to see a battle and the adventures thereof below; but no pleasure is com-parable to the standing upon the vantage-ground of truth (a hill not to be commanded, and where the air is always clear and serene), and to see the errors and wanderings and mists and tempests in the vale below."
There had/had not been a tempest and a shipwreck. What was the next phase of the allegory? Where did it go from there? What else, but the errors and wanderings in the mists of the vale below? No sooner were the pasengers on the island than they began their wanderings. In the preface to the Great Instauration Bacon had remarked:
"But the universe to the eye of the human understanding is framed like a labyrinth; presenting, as it does on every side so many ambiguities of way, such deceitful resemblances of objects and signs, natures so irregular in their lines, and so knotted and entangled. And then the way is still to be made by the uncertain light of the sense sometimes shining out, and sometimes clouded over, through the woods of experience and particulars..."
And these wanderings on the island were identified repeatedly with the movement through a labyrinth. Gonzalo said:
"This is a maze welltrod indeed, through forthrights and meanders" and later Alonzo echoed his remark: "This is as strange a maze as e'er man trod..."
The party wandered and strayed around the island with no definite course, making a wide circuit, advancing as accident dictated, Gonzalo full of hope; Sebastian, Antonio, and Alonzo distracted. They matched perfectly Bacon's metaphoric description of the quest for knowledge: "But the manner of making experiments which men now use is blind and stupid. And therefore, wandering and straying as they do with no settled course, and taking counsel only from things as they fall out, they fetch a wide circuit and meet with many matters, but little progress; and sometimes are full of hope, sometimes are distracted..."
Ariel remarked upon this state: "The King, His brother, and yours abide all three distracted,"
There was an even finer distinction. Bacon had made the distinction of learning gone astray, and learning guided. The passengers, with the exception of Ferdinand, represented learning gone astray. Therefore they were depicted as wandering lost, around and around, beset by illusions.
Ferdinand, on the other hand, whose name identified him as one who dared to venture onward, who was bold in the pursuit of peace, who was destined for union with the admired Miranda, truth personified, was guided at every step from the very bank at which he had arrived on the island. As Bacon had remarked:
"There remains but one course for the recovery of a sound and healthy condition-namely, that the entire work of the under-standing be commenced afresh, and the mind itself be from the very outset not left to take its own course, but guided at every step."
Again, Ferdinand was no sooner in the presence of Prospero (Art and Science) than he was represented as figuratively becoming a little child. Prospero says: "Come on, obey! Thy nerves are in their infancy again And have no vigor in them." For, as Bacon had remarked: "...the entrance into the kingdom of man, founded on the science, being not other than the entrance into the Kingdom of heaven, whereinto none may enter except as a little child."
Again, Prospero does not at first propose a union between Ferdinand and Miranda, but puts Ferdinand to a forced labor, avoiding that danger Bacon had pointed out: "For I foresee that if ever men are roused by my admonitions to betake themselves seriously to experiment and bid farewell to sophistical doctrines, then indeed through the premature hurry of the understanding to leap or fly to universals and principles of things, great dangers may be apprehended..." and Prospero sets Ferdinand to the task of collecting a store of some thousands of logs. Note Bacon again:
"Now for grounds of experience-since to experience we must come-we have as yet had either none or very weak ones; no search has been made to collect a store of particular observations sufficient either in number, or in kind..." In what was almost Bacon's final work, when he collected a store of particulars for use in his new science, he gave them the name SLYVA SLYVARUM, i.e. FOREST OF MATERIALS-these to be cut, gathered, and stacked, no doubt.
The logic of the Great Instuaration demanded the necessity of this labor of Ferdinand's before he could wed truth. Bacon had said: "And if any one out of all the multitude court science with honest affection and for her own sake, yet even with him the object will be found to be rather the variety of contemplations and doctrines rather than the severe and rigid search after truth."
and even after the marriage has been set there is still reason for delay. The fact that Prospero placed extraordinary stress upon Ferdi- nand not consumating the marriage until the proper time has often been commented upon. Prospero said:
"Then, as my gift, and thine own acquisition worthily purchased take my daughter. But if thou dost break her virgin-know before all sanctimonious ceremonies may with full and holy rite be mini-st'rd, no sweet aspersion shall the leavens let fall to make this contract gorw; but barren hate, sour-eyed disdain, and discord shall bestrew the union of your bed with weeds so loathly that you shall hate it both. Therefore, take heed..."
This insistence by Prospero becomes perfectly logical in the light of Bacon's Great Instauration:
"For first, the object of the natural history which I propose is not so much to delight with variety of matter or to help with present use of experiments, as to give light to the discovery of causes and supply a suckling philosophy with its first food. For though it be true that I am principally in pursuit of works and the active department of the sciences, yet I wait for harvest-time and do not attempt to mow the moss or reap the green corn. For I well know that axioms once rightly discovered will carry whole troops of works along with the, and produce them, and here and there one, by way earnest at the first works which come within reach, I utterly condemn and reject as an Atalanta's apply that hinders the race."
Bacon's great goal was the union of the rational faculty with a true model of the world, rather than that distorted image beset with idols and phantasms which existed in his day. He saw this as a marriage, a chaste and legitimate union between the mind of man and the true nature of things. Consider his thought once again:
"The explanation of which thing, and of the true relation between the nature of things and the nature of the mind, is as the strewing and decoration of the bridal chamber of the Mind and the Universe. and Divine Goodness assisting; out of which marriage, let us hope (and this be the prayer of the bridal song) there may spring helps to man, and a line and race of inventions that may in some degree subdue and overcome the necessities and miseries of humanity." So the masque of the bridal song has exactly that prayer. Juno sangs: "Honour, riches, marriage-blessing Long continuance, and increasing, Hourly joys be still upon you! Juno sings her blessings on you."
and Ceres: "Earth's increase, foison plenty, Barns and garners never empty; Vines with clust'ring bunches growing; Plants with goodly burthen bowing; Spring comes to you at the farthest In the very end of harvest! Scarcity and want shall shun you; Ceres' blessing so is on you."
There were brought forth various reapers to emphasize the idea of the harvest resulting from the marriage.
The goal of Bacon's science was the union of Human Power and Human Knowledge joined together for the pleasure and recreation of man. The scene where Prospero draws aside the curtain and discloses Ferdinand and Miranda playing at chess together is a lively emblem of the realization of this, for as the son of the King, Ferdinand represents Human Power, and as the daughter of Prospero Miranda represents Human Knowledge. In the Mystery Religion symbolism this scene corresponds to the Anacalypteria, or unveiling of Kore, and like that event (the ultimate revelation of the Mysteries) the depth and meaning of this revelation can only be intimated.
A global dimension is given to the "vision" by the words of Miranda to Ferdinand:
"...for a score of kingdoms you should wrangle and I would call it fair play." and by the response of Ferdinand, "I would not for the world." The black and white squres on the chessboard symbolize the universal forces of light and darkness, an integral part of the interplay of Human Power and Human Knowledge.
Now for the course of the remainder of the party, who represent knowledge gone astray.
Bacon said there were three basic distempers of learning: 1. Vain Imagination, 2. Vain Altercations, and 3. Vain Affections. The first of these was when men study words and not matter:
"and therefore the ill and unfit choice of words wonderfully obstructs the understanding. Nor do the definitions or explanations wherewith in some things learned men are wont to guard and defend themselves, by any means set the matter right. But words plainly force and overrule the understanding, and throw all into confusion, and lead men away into numberless empty con-troversies and idle fancies...The odols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds. They are either names of things which do not exist (for as there are things left unnamed through lack of ovservation, so likewise there are names which result from fantastic suppopsitions and to which nothing reality corresponds), or they are names of things which exist, but yet confused and ill defined, and hastily and irregularly derived from realities."
This was shown not only by the actions of Antonio and Sebastian, but by their very names. Antonio has the same root as the Greek ýntonomý(ANTONOMA, to give a wrong or false name to). Antomasia derives from the Greek Antonomazein, to call by another name-anti, instead of onomazein, to name. This is the use of an epithet or title in place of a name, as in calling a judge, your honour, or a traitor a quisling. Sebastian means August. So the two are shown quibbling over words, and assuming august airs, or as Bacon said men tend to puff themselves up and think they have more knowledge than they actually have.
The second distemper was fruitless controversies and altercations. This was shown by Sebastian and Antonio seizing upon every word of Gonzalo's for, in the words of Bacon, "scruple, cavillation and objection." The third distemper concerned deceit or untruth, the foulest of all. This had two branches; those who delight in deceiving, and those who almost seem to invite being deceived. Trinculo and Stephano deceived the credulous Caliban, and he, on his part, seemed to invite the deception.
Then also, there was the enchanted sleep. Alonzo's party, with the exception of Antonio and Sebastian, fell asleep, and Sebastian remarked: "What a strange drowsiness possesses them!"
and a little later it is indicated that even Antonio and Sebastian are actually asleep, for Sebastian says: "This is a strange repose, to be asleep With eyes wide open; standing, speaking, moving And yet so fast asleep." This agreed perfectly with the Allegory of Learning, for Bacon, in his ON NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HISTORY, had said: "For in this way, and in this way only, can the foundations of a true and active philosophy be established; and then will men wake as from a deep sleep, and at once perceive what a difference there is between the dogmas and figments of the wit and a true and active philosophy..."
It is not surprise that Alonzo's party ended up being brought into the charmed circle: "Re-enter Ariel before: then Alonso, with a frantic gesture, attended by Gonzalo; Sebastian and Antonio in like manner, attended by Adrian and Francisco: they all enter the circle which Prospero had made, and there stand charmed;" for in his ON NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HISTORY Bacon also said: "As soon, therefore, as a history has been completed of all these things which I have mentioned-namely, generations, pretergenerations, arts, and experiments, it seems that nothing will remain unprovided whereby the sense can be equipped for information of the under-standing. And then shall we be no longer kept dancing within little rings, like persons bewitched, but our range and circuit will be as wide as the compass of the world."
Bacon was always careful to insist on maintaining accord between natural and divine knowledge. In the Preface to the Great Instuaration he said:
"We likewise humbly beseech him that what is human may not clash with what is divine; and that when the ways of the senses are opened, and a greater natural light set up in the mind, nothing of incredulity and blindness toward divine mysteries may arise: but rather that the understanding may remain entirely subject to the divine oracles..."
So near the end of the play Alonso says: "This is as strange a maze as e'er men trod; And there is in this business more than nature Was ever conduct of: some oracle Must rectify our knowledge."
The aim of Bacon's apocalyptic vision was an ideal society with scientific man in control of nature for the good of all mankind. For Bacon the highest form of this science, was magic, and Prospero personifies his magician, the magus,- man in control of nature. The name Prospero (I Hope) was significant for Bacon saw a major part of his work as the task of giving hope to man. In the New Organum he said:
"...we must diligently examine what gleams of hope shines upon us... Let us the, speak of hope, especially as we are not vain promisers, nor are willing to ensnare men's judgment, but would rather lead them willingly forward. And although we shall employ the most cogent means of enforcing hope when we bring them to particulars, and especially those which are digested and arranged in our Tables of Invention (the subject partly of the second, but principally of the fourth part of the Instauration), which are, indeed, rather the very object of our hopes than hope itself; yet to proceed more leniently we must treat of the preparation of men's minds, of which the manifestation of hope forms no slight part; for without it all that we have said tends rather to produce gloom than to encourage activity or quicken the industry of experiment by causing them to have a worse and more contemptuous opinion of things as they are than they now entertain, and to perceive and feel more thoroughly their uninfortunate condition. We must, therefore, disclose and prefix our reasons for not thinking the hope of success improbable, as Columbus, before his wonderful voyage over the Atlantic, gave reasons of his convictions that new lands and continents might be discovered besides those already known; and these reasons, though at first rejected, were yet proved by subsequent experience, and were the causes and beginnings of the greatest events..."
So Prospero, the emblem of hope, was placed on an island within the gates of Hercules in the sea of old world experience. Man had to be given hope before he could venture out beyond the gates of Hercules.
Bacon set out numerous passages designed to stimulate hope: "We next give a most potent reason for hope...: "Such are the observations we would make in order to remove despair and excite hope, by bidding farewell to the errors of past ages, or by their correction. Let us examine whether there be other grounds for hope..." "We may also derive some reason for hope from..." "Nor should we omit another ground of hope..." "We think some ground of hope is afforded by..." and so on.
In The Tempest, Bacon portrayed not only a model scientist, but also a model society. In his essay "Of The Caniballes" (written under the mask of Montaigne) he had played with the idea of a society of savages in which the innate nobility of man produced conditions similar to an ideal common wealth. In the 1603 Florio translation was the following passage:
"It is a nation, would I answer Plato, that hath no kinds of traffike, no knowledge of Letters, no intelligence of numbers, no name of magistrate, nor of politike superioritie; no use of service, of riches or of povertie; no contracts, no successions, no partitions, no occupation but idle; no respect of kindred, but common, no apparel but naturall, no manuring of lands, no use of wine, corne, or mettle. The very words that import lying, falsehood, treason, dissimu-lations, covetousness, envie, detraction, and pardon, were never heard of amongst them. How dissonant would hee finde his imaginarie commonwealth from his perfection!"
So here in The Tempest he created an island as effectively reamoved from civilization as the artifrance of the essay. In this ideal setting he shows us see exactly what obstacles the speculations set forth in that essay would have to contend with. Here the ideal "good man" Gonzalo, postulates an ideal commonwealth on the island in the very words of the essay: "I' the common wealth I would by contraries Execute all things: for no kind of traffice Would I admit; no name of magistrate; Letters should not be known; riches, poverty And use of service, none; contract, succession, Bourne, bound of land, tilth, vineyard, none; No use of metal, corn, or wine, or oil; No occupation; all men idle, all; And women, too, but innocent and pure; No sovereignty... All things in common nature should produce Without sweat or endeavour: treason, felony, Would I not have; but nature should bring forth, Of its own kind, all foison, all abundance, To feed my innocent people."
Gonzalo would establish another golden age on the island, with all of its members in harmony. Yet he has barely finished expressing his dream when he falls asleep and Antonio and Sebastian are standing over him and the king preparing to murder them.
The great obstacle was not the resistance of nature, but of human nature. There was Caliban, on whose nature no print of goodness would take. There was Stephano a tyrannic drunkard, and Trinculo, a fool. Gonzalo's golden age was the fantasy of a well meaning dreamer, which could not stand the test of reality.
How then was the ideal society to be maintained? Prospero, both a contemplative, and a practical man of experience with evil had the answer. It could be maintained only through constant vigilance. Bacon said, "The true bounds and limitations whereby human knowledge is confined and circumscribed are three: 1. That we do not so place our felicity in knowledge, as we forget our mortality, 2. The second that we make application of our knowledge to give ourselves repose and contentment, and not distaste or repining, 3. That we do not presume to attain to the mysteries of God by the contemplation of nature.
So, in the play, each of these three were brought out:
1. One third of the bounds and limitation of knowledge should be that man would not forget his mortality and, at the end of the play, Prospero, emblem of the man of knowledge restored from the Fall says, "Every third thought shall be my grave."
2. When knowledge and power (Miranda and Ferdinand are joined they are shown playing chess - the symbol of knowledge used for "repose and contentment";
3. And to show that pre- sumption will not be made to attain to the mysteries of God by the contemplation of nature, at the end of their learning experience Alonzo says, "there is more to the business than nature was conduct to", and, "Some oracle must rectify our knowledge."
Certainly a curious aspect to The Tempest was the Epilogue spoken by Prospero. He had regained his Dukedom; he had brought about the bethroval of his daughter with the prince of Naples; He had reconciled the other members of the party. Everything was finished, tomorrow he would set sail for Naples. Yet the Epilogue was curiously contradictory:
"Now my charms are ore-throwne, And what strength I have's mine owne, VVhich is moft faint: now' tis true I muft be heere confide by you, Or sent to Naples, Let me not Since I haue my Dukdome got, And pardon'd the deceiuer, dwell In this bare ifland, by your Spell, But release me from my bands VVith the helpe of your good hands: Gentle breath of yours, my Sailes Muft fill, or else my proiect failes, VVhich was to please: Now I want Spirits to enforce: Art to inchant, And my ending is despaire, Vnless I be relieu'd by praier VVhich pierces so, that it affaults Mercy it selse, and frees all faults. As you from crimes would pardon'd be, Let your Indulgence set me free.
Here suddenly the attention was turned from the little microcosm to the greater world of the viewer, and the inference was the viewer by his spell kept Prospero prisoner on the island, and the viewer must release him if he was to be released. On the surface this was non- sensical since the play has told us his release is prepared for the following morning. From the perspective of the Allegory of Learning, however, this was highly significant. The story of Prospero was a vision of man's potential; a vision of man as Magus in control of nature; a vision conjured forth by the muse of Bacon. But only a vision, a dream stranded on an island in the midst of the sea of old world experience. It was the viewers to whom was entrusted the task of setting the Magus of the vision free. It was they who, by their spell, had confined man upon his little island in the sea of old world knowledge, and who must free him if he was to go forth to the New City of Knowledge (Naples = neo-appolis = New City).
Bacon himself speaks here, horribly marooned on the savage island of his age; beckoning to us across the ages; entreating us. See? I have shown you by my muse a vision of what may be. But my vision is the baseless fabric of a dream. It will come to naught as long as it is left marooned on the savage island of this age. Knowledge has suffered a shipwreck. It is you who must set it free. You must fill the sails of the Ship of Discovery so it can go on to the New City of the arts and sciences. When I examined the Epilogue with this understanding in mind I saw that Bacon had left his message in plain letters for me to see. The W's in the first folio were all printed as double V's, and the message was readily discernible:
N "Now my charms are ore-throwne,
A And what stength I haue's mine owne,
V VVhich is moft faint: now' tis true
I I muft be heere confinde by you * Or sent to Naples, Let me not S Since I haue my Dukdome got,
A And pardon'd the deceiuer, dwell In this bare ifland, by your Spell, But release me from my band VVith the helpe of your good hands: Gentle breath of yours, my Sailes
M Muft fill, or else my proiect failes,
V VVich was to please: Now I want
S Spirit to enforce: Art to inchant,
A And my ending is despaire, Vnless I be relieu'd by praier VVhich pierces so, that it affaults Mercy it selse, and frees all faults. As you from crimes would pardon'd be, Let your Indulgence set me free.
The message was in Latin. It read NAVIOSA (SHIPWRECKED), and a little further down MVSA (MUSE). To emphasize his allegory Bacon was saying - I have done my part. The rest is up to you, to your labor, to the work of your hands. As for my muse, it is shipwrecked, just as is human learning - unless you set it free.
The next major feature in Bacon's Intellectual Globe was the Anatomy of Learning. In his Advancement Bacon made what he called "a coasting voyage" of his Intellectual Globe, describing all the major landmarks as he proceeded along the way. It was only to be expected that since The Tempest is a vision of Bacon's entire Intellectual Globe, these divisions of knowledge should be found in it. A detailed listing of these divisions has already been given. This following exposition correlates these divisions with the strands of meaning in the play.
1000 HISTORY (MEMORY) personified by Caliban
When Prospero and Miranda first arrived on the island Caliban showed them "all the qualities o" the isle,/The fresh springs, brine pits, barren places and fertile." He fulfilled the function of history or memory, performing routine tasks which required no intellect or imagination, merely memory. In his capacity as memory or history Caliban also represented experience. When Bacon spoke of experience there were obvious correspondences to Caliban. Bacon described experience as being represented by the ancients as a lazy and slow-paced ass, and remarked:
"By this seems to be meant experience; a thing stupid and full of delay, whose slow and tortoise-like pace gave birth to that ancient complaint that life is short and art is long."
Caliban was represented as a thing very dull, slow, and full of delays. He was sent out by Prospero to gather wood, but fell in with Stephano, began to drink from his bottle, and was led astray. Of this slowness Prospero said: "Come forth, I say! There's other business for thee. Come, thou tortoise! When?" and referring to Caliban, Prospero says, "Dull thing, I say so!" and Caliban himself equated himself with the ass: "What a trice-double ass was I" Thus Bacon: "And yet it must be said in behalf of the ass, that he might perhaps do well enough, but for that accident of thirst by the way." Here the equality was exact. The ass Caliban, like the ass of Bacon's fable was led astray by his thirst. He met Stephano and began to drink from his bottle. Prospero sents Caliban was sent out to gather wood, but he already possessed the thousands of logs he had set Ferdinand the task of stacking, and he well knew he would be leaving the island the following morning. The need of having Caliban gather wood was not Prospero's but the allegory's.
2000 POETRY (IMAGINATION) personified by Ariel Commentators have consistently explained Ariel as Shakespeare's own poetic imagination and as a personification of man's imaginative faculties. Sir John Davies (a friend of Bacon's) described imagination in his NOSCE TEIPSUM as follows:
"When she, without a Pegasus, doth flie Swifter then lightning's fire from East to West About the Center and above the skie, She travels the, although the body rest..." and the similarity to the powers and functions of Ariel are evident. Ariel had the ability to travel instantaneously to any point in space. When first summoned by Prospero he responded: "All hail, great master! grave sir, hail! I come To answer thy best pleasure; beit to fly, To swim, to dive into the fire, to ride On the curl'd clouds to thy strong bidding task Ariel and all his quality." Bacon, describing imagination in his Advancement said it always preceded and excited voluntary motion, and that it had a considerable sway in persuasion; thus in the play it was Ariel who led the aristocrats about the island. Bacon said imagination was a messenger (as was Ariel), but more than a messenger, "as being invested with, or at least, usurping no small authority, besides delivering the message. Thus, Aristotle well observes that the mind has the same command over the body, as the master over the slave; while reason over the imagination, has the same as a magistrate has over a free citizen, who may come to rule in his turn." So during the play Ariel constantly reminds Prospero that his natural state is to be free. In the end he is freed, and presumably it is he who rules the island after Prospero departs. There was till another very telling point here. Bacon said:
"the imagination; which, now growing unruly, not only insults over, but, in a manner, offers violence to reason, partly by blinding, partly by incensing it." This passage points with a neon finger to that episode in The Tempest where Ariel demands his liberty before his time, incensing Prospero who says:
"Thou liest, malignant thing!" which seems so jarring in the context of the usual relations of these two.
Ariel has also been referred to by the play's commentators as re- presenting poetry. He created the lyric poetry which led Ferdinand to Miranda, and the song which alerted Gonzalo to Antonio's conspiracy. He performed, and presumably composed, the music which put the aristo- crats to sleep. He designed, directed, and participated in the lavish spectacle of the banquet, rich in settings, music, and dance, whereby the crimes of the aristocrats against Prospero were revealed to them- selves. Ariel, also, created, and acted a principal role in the masque of Iris and Ceres.
3000 PHILOSOPHY (REASON) personified by Prospero
Prospero has often been equated with reason. He controls all that happens on the island. He is the man in whom there has been realized the triumph of reason over the passions. Bacon had a stage direction in The Tempest which made the equation of Prospero with reason definite. This was in the Third Act, Third Scene, as follows:
"Solemn and strange music; and Prospero on the top(invisible)" Some have argued this stage direction has no meaning at this point in the play, and should be omitted, but the direction was in the globe theater, and exactly parallels a stage direction in the mask HYMENAEI by Ben Jonson which completely illuminates it. Jonson has one direction where he says, "Here out of a Microcosme, or Globe (figuring Man)" then he later has:
"Hereat, REASON, seated in the top of the Globe (as in the braine, or highest part of Man)
in union with the other evidence this is most convincing in supporting the equating of Prospero with Reason. Prospero was not only the man of reason, he was the cause of reason in others. Since he was unparalleled for liberal arts, he represents both reason and philosophy as well. The final evidence is in the description Bacon gave of philosophy in his fable of Orpheus. He describes how Orpheus draws all things to him by his music which is exactly what Prospero does in the play, in which we see at the end that they have all been drawn to his cell.
1110 FREE GENERATIONS-personified by Ariel
Ariel was the sole character in the play who constantly talked of his freedom. Ariel was the one of whom it could be said in an unqualified sense that his natural state was to be free. The characteristics of Ariel identified him as the spirit of nature. He flew in the air, through fire, descended to the bottom of the sea, or into the depths of the earth at will. Surely it was by design that he was equally at home in each of the four elements.
1120 PRAETER-GENERATIONS (or monsters) personified by Caliban Caliban's identity as monster was obvious. He was called a monster. The mother of monsters, Bacon said, was the perversities and insubor- dination of wayward and rebellious matter, which, by violence of imped- iments produced monsters. This described Sycorax, and Ariel was imprisoned (nature obstructed) during the reign of Caliban.
de mundi universitate sive megacosmus et microcosmus by Bernardus Sylvestris opens with Nature expressing the longing of matter to be born again by the reception of form. The goddess was addressing Nous (reason) and pleading the cause of matter. That Nous answered it favourably was inevitable; it was the necessity of Reason's own nature that Reason should work up to her own likeness, as far as may be, even the lowest and most remote effluence of her productivity. Yet Nous replied with a warning that the primeval squalor of the sylva could not be perfectly reformed. Nous reminds nature of the malignitas and malum of the sylva. This was the same idea used by Bacon in his Sylva Sylvarum. The idea went back to the scholastic on the Aeneid of Virgil. In the Aeneid Aeneas meets his mother Venus in a wood. Servius, a fourth-century scholar, explained sylva as double in meaning. First, it means a wild, uncultivated forest, and second the chaos of elements or unformed matter from which everything was created.
Sycorax came from two Greek words (Sow-Crow), combining the symbolism of both. In the Mysteries a sow was washed and returned to the mud, showing the tendency of a material nature to return to matter. "The crow by its blackness", said Manly Hall, "represented matter as the dark primal matrix."
The foul witch Sycorax through age and envy grew into a hoop. Bacon said when nature is forced out of her ordinary course and turned back on herself by impediments then monsters are created.
"For mischiefs manifold" we are told, "Sycorax was banished from Argiers." This is patently in her character as chaos. Bacon spoke of "the perversities and insobordination of wayward and rebellious matter", and the nous of, "the malignitas and malum of the sylva."
1130 ART personified by Prospero
Prospero has often been seen as representing ART. The identification is made doubly definite when, in the play, Prospero makes the statement, "Lie there my Art" as he removed his magic robe. Bacon was wont to tell an anecdote of Lord Treasurer Burghley who was accustomed, upon taking off his robe and laying it aside to saying, "Lie there my Lord Treasurer." If this is paralleled with Prospero then he identified himself as ART by the statement he made when he removed his magic robe.
1210 SACRED HISTORY personified by Gonzalo Even Prospero, the all knowing, referred to Gonzalo as, "Thou Holy man." The major sacred virtues were faith, hope, charity. Gonzalo was always filled with faith despite the situation of the travelers. He was always charitable in his actions in contrast with the others. He was always filled with hope. Bacon said:
"The effect of hope on the mind of man is very like the working of some soporific drugs, which not only induce sleep, but fill it with joyous and pleasing dreams." and we see Gonzalo falling prey first to the strange sleep which assailed the travelers.
1220 CIVIL HISTORY personified by the actions of the King's party Civil History was exhibited in these actions which matched perfectly Bacon's definition, "a continuance of the naked events and actions", and again, "fragments of stories", and again, "orations and the like without a perfect continuance of contexture of the thread of narration."
3100 GOD personified by Prospero
The personification of Prospero as God has noted so many times it scarcely needs elaboration. As early as 1876 Edward R. Russel suggested Prospero represented God, and his lead was followed by many commentators over the years. One example, Norman Holland:"The Tempest seems to be saying that Prospero is a play version of God..." Many references could be added.
3200 NATURE personified by Ariel
Ariel was a nature spirit. Was there any support for viewing him as the spirit of nature? Consider. According to tradition nature spirits were restricted by type to one of the four elements,- slyphs to air; nymphs to water; salamanders to fire; and gnomes to earth. Ariel, however, was equally at home in all four of the elements. He flew through the air, became balls of fire which ran up and down the mast of the ship; descended into the veins of the earth; changed at will into a nymph of the sea. Obviously he was not merely a nature spirt, but The Spirt of Nature. Moreover, a specific allusion in the play emphasized Bacon's intention of representing nature through the figure of Ariel. Prospero ordered Ariel:
"Go make thyself like a nymph o' the sea." This direction has often received comment as being without any dis- cernible purpose in the play, but Bacon had remarked of Pan or Nature: "He was accounted moreover the captain and commander of the nymphs," and again: "Pan takes delight in the nymphs;" and following the direction of Prospero it was implied that Ariel was dancing with the nymphs of the sea when he first met Ferdinand: "Come unto these yellow sands, And then take hands. Curtsied when you have and kissed The wild waves whist, Foot it featly here and there; And, sweet sprites, the burden bear." The other trait of Pan or Nature was that he was famous for his music. This was the forte of Ariel as well.
3300 MAN personified by Caliban
The next division was Man. Man was represented by Caliban. Miranda said to Caliban: "Abhorred slave, Which any print of goodness will not take, Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee, Took pains to make thee speak, taught thee each hour One thing or other. When thou didst not, savage, Know thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble like A thing most brutish, I endowed thy purposes with Words that made them known." echoing the idea of Bacon:
"Nevertheless we see that man in the first stage of his existence is a naked and defenceless thing, slow to help himself, and full of wants." Moreover there was a parallel with the attempt of Caliban upon the chastity of Miranda and the like incident which Bacon narrated in the fable of Prometheus or Man:
"But I must now return to a part which, that I might not interrupt the connexion of what precedes, I have purposely passed by. I mean that last crime of Prometheus, the attempt upon the chastity of Minerva."
And Bacon goes on to say: "From which attempt inevitably follows laceration of the mind and vexation without end or rest." Which sounded curiously akin to Prospero's remark to Caliban when Caliban expressed the desire to attempt the chastity of Miranda: "For this, be sure, tonight thou shalt have cramps, Side-stitches that shall pen thy breath up; urchins Shall, for that vast of night that they may work, All exercise on thee: thou shalt be pinched As thick as honeycomb, each pinch more stinging Than bees that made 'em." 3200 OPERATIVE SCIENCE personified by Prospero Bacon described Natural Philosophy as being made up of two parts: "...the inquisition of causes and the production of effects, specu-lative and operative; natural science and natural prudence. And here I will make a request that, for the latter, I may revive and redintegrate the misapplied and abused name of natural magic, which in its true sense is but natural wisdom or natural prudence, taken according to the ancient acceptation, purged from vanity and superstition."
Stephen Orgel remarked: "I have remarked earlier that Prospero's kind of action is signi-ficantly different from that of the other characters in the play; that is, Prospero alone is not limited to ordinary dramatic action; his awareness, his intelligence, and particularly his imaginative power have all been translated into terms of physical actions: his metaphors have been actualized, or taken literally. Therefore our sense of his "art", his magic power, is that it is really a kind of heightened awareness and intelligence. Certainly he is aware of everything that happens in the play; and since, as we have seen, all his action is mental action, for Prospero to be aware of something is to be in control of it. The magic, then, is something like Bacon's idea of science; not spells and witchcraft, butr a complete understanding of nature. We may recall, too, that for Bacon the purpose of scientific inquiry was precisely to be able to control nature as Prospero does."
If Orgel had noticed another feature of Prospero's magic he would have been even more struck by its' resemblance to Bacon's science. Prospero's magic was based on Natural Prudence just as was Bacon's magic. Cicero defined prudence as "the science of the fitness of time for acting and speaking", and in The French Academie of Primaudaye (believed by Baconians to be one of Bacon's "Masked" works) Cicero's definition is used as a basis:
"Moral Philosophers attributed three eies to the vertue of Prudence, namely, Memory, Understanding, and Providence... a prudent, and wise man, by the consideration of things past, and of that which hath followed since, judgeth of that, which in the like case may fall out in the time following. And after long deliberation, he inspecteth the times, weigheth the dangers, and knoweth the occasions: and then, yeelding now and then to the times, but alwaies to necessity, so it be not against duty, he boldly setteth his hand to the works." In the play a continual stress is placed on the proper use of time in relation to Prospero's magic. He addresses Ariel:
Prospero: What's the time o' th' day?
Ariel. Past the mid season.
Pros. At least two glasses. The time 'twixt six and now Must by us both be spent most preciously He leaves nothing to chance, but excercises the utmost viligance over his "industrious servant, Ariel," whom by promises of freedom he prompts to the greatest zeal in the exact performance of every command; and he carefully exacts the performance:
"Hast thou, Spirit, Performed to point, the Tempft that I bad thee?" When ot otherwise employued in directing the movements of the plot, he spends his own time in study with regard to it:
"I'll to my book, For yet, ere supper time, must I perform Much business appertaining."
Nor does his solictude diminish until he is assured that ample success is about to crown all his efforts: Prospero, the prudent man, mirrors the economy of nature in which everything is "performed to point." Sun, moon, tides, night, day, and the seasons are punctual to their appointed hours. The Magic of Prospero, this Natural Prudence, requires that same punctuality so every event falls precisely at the appointed time.
Love was the capstone of Bacon's pyramid of science. Prospero brought about the union of Ferdinand and Miranda through the power of love. Bacon said that man's power was limited to separating bodies, and bringing them back together again. This defines Prospero's operations in the play. At the beginning he caused all characters to be separated, and at the end to all be brought back together. The third specific of Bacon's magic had to do with spirits. He said:
"...we must examine what spirit is in every body, what tangible essence, whether that spirit is copious and exuberant, or meagre and scarce..." "...by far the greatest impediment and aberration of the human understanding proceeds from the dullness, incompetency and errors of the senses; since whatever strikes the senses preponderates over everything, however superior, which does not immediately strike them. Hence contemplation mostly ceases with sight, and a very scanty, or perhaps no regard is paid to invisible objects. The entire operation, therefore, of spirits enclosed in tangible bodies is concealed, and escapes us."
So in the play the men from the ship wandered the island as in a maze perceiving no order or direction while all the time things were controlled by the invisible spirit Ariel. In all aspects Prospero's magic agreed with that of Bacon.
3310 MAN SEGREGATE-HUMAN
Under the heading of Man Segregate,
Bacon itemized the makeup of man as divided into the body and the
soul. However, his itemization of the soul was dual which gave,
overall, a threefold division to the constitution of man:
1.INSPIRED ESSENCE (The Rational Soul)
2.PRODUCED SOUL (The Sensitive Soul)
One of the best lead-ins on this threefold division of man was the correspondence which existed between Plato's celebrated analogy of the chariot and the two steeds (in the Phraedrus), and the following three inhabitants of the island:
Plato's analogy had a driver who controlled the two steeds, one noble in character, a thing of air, ever tending upward, and the other,-degenerate (black in color and deformed), ever tending downward.
Prospero corresponded perfectly to the driver. He controlled Ariel and Caliban, just as the driver controlled the two steeds in Plato's analogy. Furthermore Ariel was a noble creature of the air, ever tending upward, while Caliban was degenerate and deformed, black in color, and his inclination was ever downward. Moreover, the degenerate steed in the analogy tired to force himself on the object of his passion, just as the deformed Caliban sought to force himself upon Miranda.
These resemblances were the tip of an allegoric iceberg which reached far down into the murky waters of antiquity. In his LES MYSTERES D"ELEUSIS, Victor Magnien demonstrated that this analogy did not orignate with Plato, but was borrowed from The Mysteries, and had been used by numerous ancient poets before Plato.
Magnien collected the ancient sources and showed that the analogy actually represented the three parts of man:
This analogy of the dirver and the two steeds as summed up by Plato was the ultimate source from which was derived the Renaissance threefold division of man. This division was:
The first of these was the governing reason, It had two divisions- intellection and volition, i.e., reason and will. The reason determined what was good, and the will enabled it to be done. The Sensitive Soul was joined to the sensory organism. It included the faculty of knowing, the sense of perceiving and apprehending, and the faculty of moving, in the sense of both physical and emotional activity. The faculty of knowing included the activities of the five senses, and the activities of common sense, imagination or fantasy. The faculty of moving included, in its turn, the power of bodily movement, and the power of the passions or affections, as the emotions were termed.
The third of these was also known as the quickening soul. The soul of the body, or of its functions. In his superb essay THE TEMPEST AND THE RENAISSANCE IDEA OF MAN, James E. Phillips traced the correspondence in detail through The Tempest, demonstrating conclusively that Prospero, Ariel, and Caliban, represent the Rational, Sensitive, and Vegetative souls respectively.
2.220 NOVUM ORGANUM (The New Machine for The Intellect)
This has already been covered in the process of investigating the "dial" message. Bacon's system utilized a ladder of generalization in connection with a mechanism which enabled the inquirer to proceed from the almost infinite diversity of nature up to a very limited number of basic qualities (The Alphabet of Nature). It was this very restricted terminus to the operation which made, at one stroke, the devisement of a machine of inquiry feasible. From the Alphabet of all the natures contained in a particular, the ultimate goal was to arrive at the summary law of that particular, or, as Bacon would have said, the "Form" of that particular.
Bacon, as was his custom, began with an idea originated by someone else, then perfected and reworked it to suit his own needs. The idea of The Ladder of The Intellect originated with Raymon Lull, a medieval philosopher and mystic who, as a result of a strange vision he had on a mountain top, tried to formulate a universal art of discovery. The Art of Lull began by laying down an alphabet according to which the nine letters from B to K stood for the different kind of substances and Attributes. By manipulating these letters in such a way as would show the relationship of different objects and predicates the "Art" was exercised. This manipulation was done by the help of certain so-called "figures", geometrical arrangements so ordered as to exhaust all possible combinations. Most of these were simply an arrangement of three concentric circles (in dial form) each divided into nine section, B,C,D, etc., and constructed of pasteboard, so that when the upper and smaller circle remained fixed, the two lower and outer revolved around it. Bacon's dial could, apparently, be operated in the same way.
Taking the letters in the sense of the series it was then possible, by revolving the outer cirlces, to find the possible relationships between various concepts and clarify the agreement or disagreement existing between them. The middle circle, in similar fashion, gave the intermediate terms by which they were to be connected or disconnected. Lull called the scale of substances, or attributes, and of questions,
The Ladder of The Intellect. 3312.300 JUDGEMENT symbolized
Examination and Judgement was the division of Bacon's system dealing with the evaluation of data presented to the mind. Not a little light was thrown on Bacon's symbolism under this heading through that very able study of King Lear made by Robert Heilman in which he demonstrated that the various distinct "patterns" of imagery which ran through the play could be made to signify the terms of a complicated dialectic turning on the ways in which man must, and must not, understand and assess the world of human experience. A more concise and more clearly defined study was made by Stanley Fish. Although Fish made the error of assigning the matter covered by his essay to the Georgics, rather than to examination and judgement, his essay was superb.
In order to show how Bacon operated his intellectual dialectic Fish made a detailed study of the 1625 essay by Bacon, "Of Love". Although this study is too lengthy to present here it would well repay the student. The following study I furnish of The Tempest in connection with Judgement parallels the study of Fish's. Fish showed how Bacon operated by continually pulling the rug of certainty out from under ones intellectual feet in order to combat the tendency of the human mind to:
For Bacon had stressed the need to try each axiom by the fire of "rejection and exclusion", before it was accepted and then the acception should be provisional only.
With this in mind consider the play. The first scene depicts a ship in a tempest at sea. The ship is in the most urgent danger. The drives it toward an island; it is in eminent danger of hitting the rocks and splitting. The mariners cheered on by the boatswain, work desperately to keep the ship from running aground. The king seeks to exert his authority and is put in his place by the boatswain,"what cares these roarers for the name of king!" The good natured old counselor who urges patience upon the boatswain. The lords who begin to curse him. The efforts to save the ship fail. The ship splits. All aboard are lost. (Of course, there is a "logical out" since the scene is merely a stage-play, and is, therefore, not real. Still, there is no reason to indulge in this quibble, and every likelihood of accepting the realism of the scene.)
No sooner has this realism been firmly established, however, than it begins to be qualified, and the more hooked the viewer is by the realism, the more he participates in the act of qualification. Indeed, there is no choice, for in contrast to the tacit "stage-play out" which came as an implicit to the initial scene we are led to believe that the tempest is not a natural one, but was produced by the magical art of Prospero. Then we are told definitely that the people aboard the ship were not lost. So at least some of what we saw was unreal and illusionary. Now, not only is the disaster which seemed so definite completely reversed, but even the tempest itself is put in doubt. Ariel says:
I boarded the king's ship; now on the beak, Now in the waist, the deck, in every cabin, I flam'd amazement: sometime I'd divide, And burn in many places; on the topmast The yards and boresprit, would I flame distinctly, O' th' dreadful thunder-claps, more momentary And sigh-outrunning were not: the fire and cracks Of sulphurous roaring the most mighty Neptune Yea, the dread trident shake. If all this just seemed was the entire tempest an illusion? We do not know. All is in doubt and there is a beginning of an awareness of the unresolved complexities of what has been seen.
We witnessed a tempest and a shipwreck. It was only a stage-show, the illusion of an event. The shipwreck did not take place, and perhaps also the tempest itself. It was only an illusion of an illusion. There is an indefiniteness as if we are at the edge of an infinite regress. What uncertainty will open up next? As certainy has been wounded. This training of the mind to a suspension of judgement even in regards to the most certain things is in conformity with the ideas of Bacon's ADVANCEMENT. Divisions were made under the analysis of data presented, and the confutation of data presented. Confutations dealt with:
Sophisms dealt with all deceptive appearance presented to the perception. Interpretation dealt with the evaluation of the data presented apart from whatever deceptive appearances might be inherent in that data. That is, inter- pretation was the next logical step after dealing with sophisms before admitting the data to the mind, and idols dealt with the deceptive images entertained of data which had already been admitted to the mind.
The first scene in The Tempest clearly dealt with sophisms. The Tempest was a deceptive appearance which required confutation. The island itself had not been conjured up by magic. So the judgement of the island was a matter of interpretation.
What kind of island were the passengers cast ashore on? What type of place was it? Adrian said it was of a tender and delicate temperance, and the air was sweet. Were the passengers cast ashore on a paradise? But wait. Sebastian said the air was not sweet, that it breathed as if it came from rotten lungs. Antonio said it was as if it was per- fumed by a fen. Clearly this was a matter for interpretation. Gonzalo spoke, "How lush and lusty the grass looks!" Antonio and Sebastian immediately gave him the lie. Who was correct? Ah, Gonzalo remarked upon the strange freshness of their garments. Ariel had said their garments had not a blemish upon them, but were fresher than before. Antonio and Sebastian again immediately gave him the lie. But there was outside corroboration of his truthfulness. Next Gonzalo spoke of Widow Dido. He was contradicted again, but again there was outside corroboration. Virgil had stressed Dido's widowhood throughout the action which concerned her. Next Gonzalo said Tunis was Carthage. Wasn't Carthage rather a suburb of Tunis? Still he was close enough that apart from precise distinction his statement could be accepted. But wait. Now Gonzalo rambles on about what he would do if he was king on the island. He would establish a golden age in which there would be no sovereignty! No wonder Antonio and Sebastian take exception. He would be king yet have no kings. Furthermore, a couple of minutes later, after having given a trusting speech about the nobility of human nature Gonzalo falls asleep, and Antonio and Sebastian stand over him preparing to murder him. Once again Bacon has pulled the rug out from under our feet. Nothing about the island can be relied upon because it has only been viewed through the interpretations of the various characters in the play. Clearly there is a considerable problem with interpretation involved here.
From this we are caught up in a curious network of sleeping and waking so the distinction between the two seems to merge. Each separate group of castaways is led to their own vision each of which is an illusion. We come to realize finally that it is a subtlety of the isle that makes everything seem what it is not. The island we realize now is full of illusion and everything we witness in it is open to doubt. But now comes a final shift in perspective, just at the end of one of the visions, Prospero says: Our revels now are ended. These our actors, As I foretold you, were all spirits and Are melted into air, into thin air; And, like the baseless fabric of this vision, The cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous palaces, The solemn temples, the great globe itself, Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve, And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, Leave not a rack behind. We are such stuff As dreams are made on, and our little life Is rounded with a sleep.
Now its out. The final revelation. Prospero the great, the all wise, the God like, points out that it is not just the island, the globe playhouse, the world itself, is all an illusion, a dream a mere insubstantial pageant. We have reached certainty at last.
But is this the final revelation? Immediately after we have reached this final iconoclyasmic mental delocation beyond which we can go no further Prospero says:
Sir, I am vexed Bear with my weakness. My old brain is troubled. Be not disturbed with my infirmity. Was it indeed the omniscient all-wise magician speaking, or was it merely a vexed old man. We are left in doubt.
Idols, according to Bacon, were delusive appearances or delusive images. Bacon retained the original significance of the word. Idolon in greek meant a form, or "thought form". In the sense Bacon used the idea, an Idol was an illusionary image; something seen which was not real, a hallucination peculiar to the particular nature of the mind in which it was resident.
Although Bacon mentioned four types of Idols in his Noveum Organum, he considered only three in the De Augmentis, for he said that Idols of the Theatre, which were superinduced by false theories, or philoso- phies, and perverted laws of demonstration, did not seize the mind as strongly as the others, and could be rejected and laid aside. The three types considered in the De Augmentis were:
The Tempest has three streams of action, each leading in the end to an illusionary vision. Thus, the stream of action dealing with Ferdinand leads to the masque shown to him by Prospero (which as Prospero said when it ended, was only an illusionary vison produced by his art); the stream of action dealing with Caliban, Stephano and Trinculo leads to the illusionary vision of the hounds which hunt them (this vision was also produced at the behest of Prospero); and lastly, the stream of action dealing with the King's party leads to the illusionary vision of the banquet (also produced at Prospero's behest). Lets consider each in turn.
Ferdinand had none of the personal defects which are normally the lot of each particular man. His only defect was that which was in- herent from his being a member of mankind. For this Idol Bacon said that the human mind presupposes a greater unamity and uniformity in the nature of things than there really is; that the mind through its desire for order imposes order upon nature where it does not exist. This was exactly the nature of the vision seen by Ferdinand. The masque was a vision of harmony and order. In fact, the imposition of harmony and order upon nature by the vision was so great that winter was omitted from the cycle of the seasons: "Spring come to you at the farthest In the very end of harvest!"
The false images seen by Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo were of a nature peculiar to each. This was shown in the names of the hounds. Fury was the particular defect of Caliban, who raved that, after Pros- pero was asleep, Stephano should:
"Having first seized his books, or with a log Batter his skull, or paunch him with a stake, Or cut his seasant with thy knife." Silver represented the particular defect of Trinculo, who upon first sighting Caliban, thought of the silver he could obtain from exhibiting him if he was in England: "A strange fish! Were I in England now, as once I was, and had but this fish painted, not a holiday fool there but would give a piece of silver."
Tyrant represented the defect of Stephano, whose first action upon meeting with Caliban was to have him swear alliance teo him. And Caliban later said: "A plague upon the tyrant that I serve! I'll bear him no more sticks, but follow thee," which, added to the action that followed, pointed to the tyrant like nature of Stephano.
The false vision seen by the kings party was shown by a number of commentators on The Tempest to represent a communion banquet. The action leading up to the vision had shown them at odds through words, experiencing a failure to communicate and so when their false vision came it had the semblance of a communion, a communion of mind and spirit which, due to delusive words, was only an illusion.
Custody dealt with the correct use of memory. So did The Tempest. Consider Prospero's lengthy exposition which recovers for Miranda her past from "the dark backward and abysm of time." Along with Miranda we learn how those many years ago he had fialled to use time properly. Devoting himself to his secret studies, he had allowed his brother to rule in his tead. We learn also that he holds himself responsible not only for having neglected "wordly ends", and for having found his library "dukedom large enough", but for having awakened "an evil nature" in his brother.
The scene had a significance beyond the obvious. It focuses upon memory as a shaping power of present and future. Miranda, Antonio, Caliban, Ariel, and Prospero himself, are characterized by the way they use memory and the past. Their reponses provides us with distinctions of fundamental importance throughout the rest of the play.
In his negligence as governor Prospero allowed Antonio not only to seize power, but also to forget his identity as brother and subordinate. A comparison with Pericles is illuminating. Pericles had been taught the lesson of mortality by the tempest that isolated him in Pentapolis. Stripped of his dignities he remembered what it meant to be mortal: What I have been I have forgot to know, But what I am want teaches me to think on, A man throng'd up with cold.
At the banquet following his victory in the tournament, as he looks at Simonides he remembers his father and is again reminded of mortality and man's subservience to time. It is Perdita's refusal to forget who she is when she is attired as Flora that proves her innocence and natural nobility. The right use of mmemory in each instance leads to the knowledge of self which is preprequisite to humility and gentleness. But Antonio's memory was defective:
He being thus lorded, Not only with what my revenue yielded, But what my power might else exact,-like one Who having into truth, by telling of it, Made such a sinner of his memory To credit his own lie,-he did believe He was indeed the Duke.
In the midst of his new wealth and power Antonio forgot who he was, and it will be Prospero's duty as a brother and Duke of Milan to bring him to the proper remembrance. To that end Prospero uses his art of illusion to move his brother to virtuous action. He gets his brother not only to see the present in the true light of past events, but also to feel the sorrow that recognition of his own guilt ought to arouse. Miranda's response to the past (in contrast to Antonio's) is exemplary. Her memory of Milan is only a dream-like recollection of "four or five women once that tended me", but as she learns of her father's past afflictions, she responds with the same compassion with which she had responded to the illusion of the shipwreck at the outset of the scene. Alack for pity!
I, not rememb'ring how I cried out then, Will cry it o'er again. It is a hint That wrings mine eyes to't. Memory of the afflictions of others is a source for the compassion man ought to feel for others. A reminder to oneself that all men share a common lot. Miranda, lacking such memories, is nevertheless able to respond as if she had in fact experienced and remembered her father's afflictions. This ability to respond to the past and experience remorse and compassion for afflictions suffered by others plays an important part in the final moments of the play.
Ariel and Caliban, respectively, reveal deficiency and pervsesity in their responses to the past. Ariel seems initially to be guilty of the forgetfulness with which Prospero charges him:
Prospero: Dost thou forget From what a torment I did free thee?
Ariel: I do not sir. Prospero.Thou liest, malignant thing! Hast thou forgot The foul witch Sycorax, who with age and envy Was grown into a hoop? Hast thou forgot her? Ariel. No, sir. Prospero. Thou hast. Where was she born?
Ariel: Sir, in Argier.
Prospero: O' was she so? I must Once in a month recount what thou hast been, Which thou forget'st.
But Ariel has not forgotten. He is a spirit and, as we learn later incapable of feeling. Prospero, therefore, cannot expect him to act freely on his behalf either out of compassion or out of gratitude. He can only win his cooperation by holding out eventual freedom as a reward. He tried hard but ineffectively to stir up gratitude in Ariel by forcing him to remember the captivity from which he was res- cued, but Ariel's answers continue to be confined to brief, neutral affirmations of Prospero's account of the details of Sycorax, and of Ariel's imprisonment. It is only when Prospero threatens to im- prison him in an oak for another twelve winters that Ariel agrees to be dutiful. We shall see eventually that the right use of human memory produces states of feeling that lead to action freely undertaken. Remorse, gratitude, compassion, and love prove to be the feelings that at last make possible the renewal of the old world, if not the birth of a "brave new world."
Caliban's memory, on the other hand, is revealed to be defective by the perversity of the passions that his recollections stir up. He remembers only to resent and, when the opportunity seems to present itself, to seek revenge upon Prospero. Love, and therefore compassion and remorse are byond him. When reminded of his attempt to rape Miranda, he is gleeful: "O ho, O ho! would't had been done!/ Thou didst prevent me; I had peopl'd else/ This isle with Calibans." Con- trolled by passions unredeemed, he is incapable of comprehending the good or of benefiting from the past. Despite all of Prospero's efforts, he remains a creature "Which any print of goodness wilt not take", an intractable creature whom only "stripes may move, not kindness." Only the fear of physical punishment and actual constraint keep Caliban under control.
What about Prospero's own use of memory? He holds his negligence ultimately to blame for the conspiracy and the years of exile to which it has led. He intends to seize the occasion time has pro- vided. How does he respond to his memory of old injuries? There is just enough testiness in his demeanor to suggest that he is not above the desire for revenge. He has raised a furious tempest as a means of bringing his old enemies to the island; he has nagged at Miranda, questioning her attentiveness; and when Ariel has reminded him of the freedom he has been promised, he has angrily accused the spirit of ungratefulness. His final decision to forgive his enemies is foreshadowed by the care he takes to save them from shipwreck, and, later, to prevent the murder of Alonso; but his decision is surely not a foregone conclusion.
Apart from actual models of good, Bacon said the Doctrine of The Good dealt with describing the nature of good. He described good as either self-good, as a thing was a whole in itself, or the good of communion, as a thing was a part of a greater whole. This latter, the good of communion, he said was more worthy and more powerful than any possible variety of self-good.
In the play Alonzo, Antonio and Sebastian were depicted as three men of sin. They were so selfish that they could think only of self- good, and were barred from the good of communion, allegorized by their being barred from partaking of the communion feast in the banquet scene. (Robert Hunter had argued that the banquet represented a communion feast, and his interpretation has generally been accepted by subsequent commentators.
Under models of good the prime example was Gonzalo. He represented the Good Man. Gonzalo was the model of Goodness and Goodness of Nature as described in Bacon's essay of that name. Bacon took goodness in the sense of affecting the well being of men. Goodness he called this habit, and goodness of nature this inclination. He said that this virtue and this dignity of mind was the greatest of all.
Within Gonzalo resided loyalty, reverence, optimism, and kindliness. Just as Antonio and Sebastian were vividly characterized in the first scene, so too was Gonzalo. While everyone else flew about in panic, Gonzalo remained level headed and optimistic: "Nay, good, be patient" he implored. When the ship's destruction seemed unavoidable and others cursed at being "cheated of their lives," Gonzalo stoically and faithfully said, "The wills above be done." Moreover, it was Gonzalo who suggested that everyone join the king and the prince at prayers, "For our case is as theirs." Only Gonzalo realized everyone was in the boat of life together.
Next, we learn from Prospero that Gonzalo's charity saved the banished duke's and his daughters life. Gonzalo's compassion provided him with the books which gave him his power. Gonzalo's optimism was the ray of brightness in the shipwrecked party. While the others lamented their loss, only Gonzalo reminded them of their good fortune. When Sebastian sneered that Gonzalo would "carry this island home in his pocket, and give it to his son for an apple," he spoke more truly than he knew, for the spirit of Prospero's island was within Gonzalo. It may be going too far to suggest that Antonio's and Sebastian's mocking of Gonzalo recalled the mocking of Jesus by the Romans, yet there was the same presence of innate holiness and others blindness to it. As Gonzalo had saved Prospero, so did he save Alonso from Antonio and Sebastian (and even Antonio and Sebastian from Alonso a dozen lines later), just as he ordered the party to save all three when they went mad after the banquet vanished. If Ferdinand and Miranda embodied the beauty of romantic love, Gonzalo personified the sanctity of goodness. This nature of Gonzalo was indicated by the very fact of Antonio and Sebastian depreciating him, for Bacon had said:
"...it is the manner of men, especially the evil-minded to depreciate what is excellent and virtuous."
Bacon said further of goodness that it admitted not excess but error. "Errors indeed," He said, "in this virtue of goodness may be admitted." So it shown in the play that Gonzalo continually manifests the nature of goodness, but at the same time that he is frequently subject to error. He is too trusting in the presence of the evil natured men around him. He sees the island as a paradise while Antonio and Sebastian see it as a hades, when in fact, it is only another island with no special graces or defects which set it apart from any other island of the Mediterrean basin.
Antonio and Sebastian match Bacon's description of evil-minded men exactly. He said.
"Neither is there only a habit of goodness, directed by right reason; but there is in some men, even in nature, a disposition toward it; as on the other side, there is a natural malignity.
For there be, that in their nature do not affect the good of others. The lighter sort of malignity, turneth but to a cross- ness, or frowardness, or aptness to oppose, or difficulties, or the like; but the deeper sort, to envy and mere mischief. Such men, in other men's calamities, are, as it were, in season, and are ever on the loading part: not so good as the dogs, that licked Lazarus's sores; but like flies, that are still buzzing upon any- thing that is raw;"
So the speech between Sebastian and Antonio showed more than just an incredible tastelessness:
SEB: Sir, you may thank yourself for this great loss, That would not bless our Europe with your daughter, But rather lose her to an African, Where she, at least, is banished from your eye Who hath cause to wet the grief on't.
ALON: Prithee peace.
SEB: You were kneeled to and importuned otherwise By all of us; and the fair soul herself Weighed, between loathness and obedience, at Which end o' the beam should bow. We have lost your son, I fear, forever. Milan and Naples have Mo widows in them of this business' making Than we bring men to comfort them. The fault's your own.
ALON. So is the dear'st o' the loss. For Gonzalo says to Sebastian:
My Lord Sebastian, The truth you speak doth lack some gentleness, And time to speak it in. You rub the sore When you should bring the plaster. Bacon said:
"The parts and signs of goodness are many. If a man be gracious and courteous to strangers, it shows he is a citizen of the world, and that his heart is no island, cut off from other lands, but a continent, that joins to them. If he be compassionate towards the afflictions of others, it shows that his heart is like the noble tree, that is wounded itself, when it gives the balm. If he easily pardons, and remits offences, it shows that his mind is planted above injuries; so that he cannot be shot. If he be thankful for small benefits, it shows that he weighs men's minds, and not their trash."
So in the play Gonzalo is shown as trying to make peace between the lords and the boatswain, and trying to comfort Alonzo in his affliction with conversation designed to take him mind from his despair. When, after joining Sebastian in making all kind of sarcastic remarks at the expense of Gonzalo, Antonio says:
"Nay, good my lord, be not angry." Gonzalo promptly shows that he entertains no anger toward them. Yet he promptly does something which is just as bad, for he allows himself to go to sleep along with the king in theirw presence. As Bacon said: "The Itealians have an ungracious proverb, Tanto buon che val niente: so godd, that he is good for nothing. And one of the doctors of Italy, Nicholas Machiavel, had the confidence to put in writing, almost in plain terms, that the Christian faith, had given up good men, in prey to those that are tyran-nical and unjust. Which he spake, because indeed there was never law, or sect, or opinion, did so much magnify goodness, as the Christian religion doth. Therefore, to avoid the scandal and the danger both, it is good, to take knowledge of the errors of an habit so excellent."
Vergil is known for the AENEID, but he wrote another poem, THE GEORGICS, a poem on agriculture, which was also justly famous. Taking his cue from Vergil Bacon also had his GEORGICS, but Bacon's study dealt with the agriculture of the mind; the extirpation of the vices, and the cultivation of the virtues. Bacon divided his GEORGICS into three parts:
Sebastian and Antonio portray maglignity in evil minded men, and contrast with the portrayal of the goodness of nature in Gonzalo. Their natures gave rise to their characteristic affections. In Sebastian and Antonio their innate nature leads them to see the worse in everything and to express always a total skepticism. In Gonzalo his goodness of nature leads him to just the opposite. He always sees the best in everything. Where Antonio and Sebastian sees the island as a marshy fen, Gonzalo sees another Eden. The very extremes of their viewpoints underscores the errors of their views and the need for a mean somewhere between.
For one of the means of remedies or cures, Bacon said: "Neither is the ancient rule amiss, to bend nature, as a wand, to a contrary extreme, whereby to set it right." He also said:
"The third example shall be the precept which Aristotle transiently mentions; viz., to endeavour our utmost against that whereto we are strongly impelled by nature; thus, as it were, rowing against the stream, or bending a crooked stick the contrary way, in order to bring it straight."
So Bacon sets out the action in the play in such a manner that these three are led by the machinations of Prospero to be strongly bent to the very opposite of their nature. When the banquet illusion finally takes place in the play we see Sebastian and Antonio, those great skeptics, actually competing with each other as to whom will believe the most:
SEB: A living drollery. Now I will believe That there are unicorns; that in Arabia There is one tree, the phoenix' throne, one phoenix At this hour reigning there.
ANT: I'll believe both; And what does else want credit, come to me, And I'll be sworn 'tis true. Travelers ne'er did lie, Though fools at home condemn 'em.
Gonzalo takes a little longer to come around, but at last he too, the incurable wearer of rose colored glasses, goes to the opposite extreme:
GON. All torment, trouble, wonder, and amazement inhabits here. Some heavenly power guide us Out of this fearful country! like the bent wand of Bacon's example they have all three been bent to a contrary extreme to set them right.
In the Novum Organum Bacon explained that the Interpretation of Nature divided into two divisions:
The subject of the Latent Process in its most generalized categori- zation would follow the same broad divisions as the anatomy of the Intellectual Globe and would deal with:
In regards to man the latent process is that process spaning the interval from his first beginnings or entry into the earth up to the perfect man, or to the point where he achieves liberation from the earth cycle. As Manly Palmer Hall so aptly remarked:
"People have the mistaken idea that when they come into physical existence they are born. In their egotism they have forgotten that all mortal things are embryo gods who cannot achieve to Divinity until they have transcended every vestige of mortality. Every living thing is an embryo." Thus the story of the Latent Process in man is the story of the journey of the soul through the cycle of reincarnation. In connection with this story the strands of many fibers of tradition were utilized to weave a complex and beautiful allegoric narrative.
In the Western Tradition a great deal of material dealt with the descent of the soul into the under world, the sphere of earthly existence. The Chaldeans, The Egyptians, Plato, and after him the Neoplatonic writers all dealt with this theme. Synesius, Bishop of Ptolemais, describing the descent of the soul said:
"...When first it comes down to earth, it embarks on this animal spirit as on a boat, and through it is brought into contact with matter."
The boat upon which souls are found at the beginning of the play clearly had to do with this allegory for the author has gone to great pains to point out that the passengers of the boat were to be considered as souls. In the short space of thirty lines they were three times referred to as souls. In addition to this the allegory was indicated by the tempest which began the play. The souls in their celestial dwelling were supposed to be serene and passionless. The passions which afflicted them as they descended into the lower world were compared to a tempest which beset the soul.
That this tempest represented these passions was indicated by the apparent misprint at the beginning of the play. The Boatswain said: "Heigh my hearts, cheerely, cheerely my harts:"
The close pairing of the variance in spelling intimated intention and the meaning of "harts" was described by the Duke in the Twelfth Night when he said:
".....when mine eyes did see Olivia first, Methought she purged the air of pestilence! That instant was I turned into a hart, And my desires, like fell and cruel hounds, E'er since pursue me." This allegory is apparent when Prospero sets his spirits in the forms of hounds on Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo, for the names he gave to them shows that they represent the passions of these three. Their primary passion was to elevate themselves. Thus the first hound was named Mountain. Trinculo had wanted to make money by exhibiting Caliban back in England. The next hound was named Silver. Stephano had desired to set up a tyrannical rule on the island. The next hound was named Tyrant. Caliban had sought to turn in fury against Prospero and slay him, thus the hound named Fury. This interpretation of the beginning action as the descent of souls was supported by the situation of Ferdinand when he came ashore. Ariel came to him having taken to himself the form of a nymph and inviting him by song to join in the dance of the nymphs. Bacon in his study on PAN had pointed out that the nymphs represented the souls, and this had been brought out also in Porphyry's De Antro Nympharum(Concerning the Cave of The Nymphs). In this study Porphry took the passage from Homer:
"High at the head a branching olive grows, And crowns the pointed cliffs with shady broughs. A cavern pleasant, though involv'd in night, Beneath it lies the Naiades delight.
Where bowls and urns, of workmanship divine, And massy beams in native marble shine; On which the Nymphs amazing webs display, Of purple hue, and exquisite array. The busy bees, within the urns secure Honey delicious, and like nectar pure. Perpetual waters thro' the grotto glide, A lofty gate unfolds on either side; That to the north is pervious by mankind: The sacred south t' immortals is consign'd. and demonstrated that the nymphs in the cave symbolized the souls who had entered into the dark sphere of matter. "And" he said, "what symbol is more proper to souls descending into generations, and the tenacious vestment of body, than as the poet says, 'Nymphs weaving on stony beams purple garments wonderful to behold?' For the flesh is generated in and about the bones, which in the bodies of animals may be compared to stone." So it was appropriate that Ariel should invite Ferdinand to join the dance of the nymphs at this point. Ariel followed his song extending the invitation to the dance with yet another song: Full fadom fiue thy Father lies, Of his bones are Corrall made: Those are pearles that were his eies, Nothing of him that doth fade, But doth suffer a Sea-Change Into something rich, & strange: Sea Nimphs hourly ring his knell. Burthen: ding dong. Harke now I heare them, ding-dong bell. This touched another strand of meaning in this multi-fibered allegory. True Ariel is a "tricksy" spirit and the common inference is he was lying to Ferdinand. After all doesn't all of the action of the play show the passengers swam safely ashore? Nevertheless there are numerous insinuations in the play that the action takes place under the sea. When the lords awake from their strange sleep on the island Alonzo asks Gonzalo if he heard anything and he replied: "Upon mine honor, I heard a humming, and that a strange one too..."
This recals the line in Pericles:
"And humming water must o'erwhelm thy corpse," Sebastian and Antonio claim they had heard a hollow bellowing like bulls or the roar of a whole herd of lions. Could this have been the roar of the surf? It is indisputable the sea seeps into every action, creating new compounds, Sea-swallow'd, sea-sorrow, sea-marge, until the entire play seems subject to the spell of a sea-change and the still-closing waters become its image.
Menendez Y Pelayo in his Origenes de la Novela demonstrates there exists an exhaustive list of similarities between the fourth novela of Antonio de Eslava's Noches de Invierno which was first printed at Pamplona in 1609 and The Tempest. However, there was one notable difference. The Lodging of the magician and his daughter in the novela of Eslava was in a submarine palace beneath the waters on the ocean floor!
After pointing out some of the numerous insinuations in the play which indicated the submarine location Philip Brockbank said: "The suggestion that the action of The Tempest takes place under the sea is witty and illuminating."
Having stumbled across one of the most suggestive features of the play Brockbank didn't know what to do with it. In addition to indicating that the passengers had drowned and the action was taking place in the world beyond, this submarine coloring also indicated that the souls had descended into the ocean of life, the sublunary world, the phenomenal world subject to the flux and reflux of change and time?
In the East this sphere into which the incarnating soul enters was referred to as Samsara, and often as the sea of samsara. In connection with the journey of the soul through Samsara the ancient Eastern Traditions had another very strange idea. They said the whole experience was only an illusion, a cosmic dream in which the self was caught up, but from which it would awaken when it finally achieved liberation. The great Lord Vishnu lays sleeping on his bed of Sesa, The King of Snakes. As he sleeps he dreams. This dream is all of creation. When he awakes all creation will disappear. With the appearance of his dream was also born time, the intregal aspect of Maya-the dream producing power of Vishnu.
As the great Lord Vishnu, The Supreme Self dreams, from his one self is produced (as reflections) all the individual selves. When He awakens the multiplicity of individual selves will merge back into The One Self. Many commentators had noticed the atmosphere of dream which permeated The Tempest without realizing its significance. David Young remarked:
"So dense and pervasive is the dreamlike atmosphere of the play that it scarcely needs pointing out." and Derek Traversi spoke of:
"The dream-like quality which pervades it..." while Marjorie B. Garber in her more technical study called The Tempest "the most remarkable of all Shakespeare's dream worlds..." and James Smith comparing the play with Calderon's LA VIDA ES SUENO (Life is a Dream) said:
"But on one point The Tempest is different. And though it is foolish to discuss which of two such eminent masterpieces is the superior, yet in virtue of that point the Tempest can, I think, be awarded superiority as a variation upon the argument that life is a dream. For whereas in Calderon's play one character only is shown as dreaming, while the rest are wide awake and so have the opportunity of learning their lesson from him; in The Tempest all the characters are involved in the dream contemporaneously."
The first act of the play plunges the viewer into the midst of unqualified realism. With the first two dozen words the viewer caught up in desperate action. A ship at sea is caught in a terrible tempest. It cannot run free before the wind because the storm is forcing it toward a nearby island. The danger is it will strike the rocks, split, and go down. The mariners, under the urgings of the boatswain, are desperately working to avoid this. They attempt to prevent the ship from drifting leeward by lowering the topmast, thus removing some of the weight from aloft, but the tempest continues to drive the ship toward the island and, in the midst of their desperate labors, the Boatswain is forced to contend with the meddling of the nobility aboard the ship. Finally all is given up for lost. The Boatswain takes to drink. The king, his son, and his counselor to prayers, and the brother of the king and the Duke of Milan to cursing. The ship strikes, splits. All aboard are lost.
The reality of this first scene, however, is the reality of dreams. For now the scene changes. Instead of the turmoil of a moment before we are in a tranquil cell. An old man talks to his young daughter. With the calm acceptance of impossibility, which is the hallmark of dreams, we learn he caused the tempest. As he talks the action subtly and suddenly assumes a dreamlike quality which continues throughout the remainder of the play. This quality is a vague "strangeness" of the island closely allied to sleep, both of which features appear in the daughter's remark about the "heaviness" oppressing her while listening to her father.
We are told, or at least is implied, that the tempest was not real but only an illusion. Allied with this is the feeling of entering on an experience of sleep and dream which arises beautifully out of the dra- matic and rhythmic texture of the opening dialogue between father an daughter. The movement of these speeches with their oddly rocking repetitions is in key with the sleepy incredibility of the events being described. 'Canst thou remember..thou canst...I can...thy remembrance... my remembrance...thou remember'st...Twelve year since, Miranda, twelve year since...' throughout the story Prospero continually reminds Miranda to 'attend' to the telling, and it seems perfectly natural that at the end she should be 'inclin'd to sleep'. Miranda's images of the past come back to her 'rather like a dream', and Prospero seems to be drawing their story from a world of sleep, 'the dark backward and abysm of time'.
This confusion between dreaming and waking promotes the dreamlike and illusory character of the play. We meet the king's son, Ferdinand, and he says:
"My spirits, as in a dream, are all bound up." With the next scene this atmosphere is extended. The sleep which affects the courtiers is, like Miranda's, 'a strange heaviness'. Their dialogue runs down, psychologically and rhythmically, through three echoes of Miranda's words:
Gonzalo. Will you laugh me asleep for I am very heavy? Sebastian. Do not omit the heavy offer of it... Alonso. Thank you. Wondrous heavy. Sebastian. What a strange drowsiness possesses them!
and this followed on the heels of the strange, dreamlike quality of the variance in their several perceptions of the island. The conversation that follows between the conspirators continues this dreamlike atmosphere. Sebastian and Antonio begin by talking about actual sleep and waking: why are they not drowsy like the others? Then Antonio shifts to talking of sleepiness and alertness of mind, and from that:
Antonio....My strong imagination sees a crown Dropping upon thy head. Sebastian. What, art thou waking? Antonio. Do you not hear me speak? Sebastian. I do; and surely It is a sleepy language, and thou speak'st Out of thy sleep. What is it thou didst say? This is a strange repose, to be asleep With eyes wide open; standing, speaking, moving And yet so fast asleep. Antonio. Noble Sebastian, Thou let'st thy fortune sleep-die, rather; wink'st Whiles thou art waking. Sebastian. Thou dost snore distinctly; There's meaning in thy snores.
With the illogicality of dreams Antonio and Sebastian plot the murder of Alonzo so that Sebastian can become king while all the time they are marooned on an island from which as far as they know there is no chance of escape, and on which the office of king of Naples has absolutely no meaning. The plotting of the conspirators takes on a preposterous dreamlike character akin to that of Prospero's narrative and Miranda's recollections. In this manner the dreamlike quality of the play is maintained. Beyond this there is found repeatedly that familiar aspect of dreams - the tendency to dissolve the normal barriers between the physical and mental, between exterior and interior events.
Not only does the play give a controlled effect of a dream, it also follow the three levels of dream experience. Dream experience exists on the physical level, the mental level, and the super-mental level, and the play's recurrent themes are played on these three levels. The action shifts in successive scenes from the romance of afflicted kings and scheming courtiers, to the amorous idyl of Ferdinand and Miranda, to the farce of Caliban and the drunken servants.
This dreamlike atmosphere is miraculously heightened by the background of the sea. The sea seeps into every action and creates new compounds, sea-swallow'd, sea-sorrow, sea-marge, until the play itself suffers a sea change, and the still closing waters are the sea of the dream consciousness.
The dream atmosphere is pointed to by another factor as well In a book on dreaming an author says:
"You are the god who creates your dream creatures; you give them life. YOu are the author of the plot they act out, the director, and the producer." and of Prospero we hear: "From the moment Prospero raises the tempest which initiates the action by casting up the voyagers on his island until he delivers the plays epilogue, he is depicted as Stage Director and Surrogate Dramatist." Garber points out a number of technical points which indicate the dream quality of the play. For example: "The dramatic world which surrounds Caliban is an effective analogue to this spiritual condition. The comic scene in which he is discovered by Stephano and Trinculo has many of the aspects of dream or nightmare: Stephano, fearing devils, observes a strange shape and takes it for a monster, when actually it is the combined form of Caliban and Trinculo half-hidden beneath a cloak. Moreover, the "monster" inexplicably speaks the language of the Neapolitans, further startling Stephano with its incongruities. This is a visible enactment of metamorphosis, the "monster of the isle, with four legs"(II,ii,65-66) turning into a pair of people, one of whom is himself seen as a "monster." In the momentary union of Caliban and Trinculo there is a direct manifestation of the aspect of the dream work described by Freud as "condensation":
Trinculo, a man with many malign qualities which Caliban symbolizes, is conflated with Caliban, the metaphorical embodiment of these qualities. Stephano's mistake, in thinking the two to be one, and "monstrous," is presented as a symbolic truth."
David James points out the pervasive, dreamlike quality of the play simulated by the incoherent discords of the varying perceptions of the island upon which they are cast away following the tempest, and augmented by the recurrence of the words 'sleep' 'waking' and 'dream' throughout the play, and by the curious actions of the characters of falling asleep, awakening again; of, while they are awake of experiencing difficulty in knowing whether they in reality are not sleeping, and by the speech of Prospero in which he says all of life is a dream and remarks that in the light of all this, the total impression made by the play can best be expresseqd by saying that:
"Prospero in truth never left Milan, and that the island and everything which happens on it is only a dream of Prospero's."
He went on to note a curious feature in the play whereby as it neared the end and finally culminated in the final epilogue speech of Prospero there was a curious impression created of Prospero awakening from a dream. Deep in the play Prospero was a god, just as we are gods to the characters of our dreams. As says, he set roaring war betwixt the green sea and the azure vault, plucked up pine and cedar trees by their roots; called forth spirits from their graves. He operated as both author and director of the entire drama. But then, as the play neared its end he gradually ceased to be a god and became curiously more and more human until at last we found him saying:
"Now my charms are all o'erthrown, And what strength I have's mine own"
as if his magic power had been that of the dreamer over the world of his own dream creation, and now he is awake he is (although a duke of power) only a man again.
James came close to a realization of what was, perhaps, the most occult feature of the play. For what Bacon had built in here was the Vedantic Doctrine of the Self caught up in its cosmic dream from which in the end it must awaken. The Royal Self has never left its high estate, says the Vedanta, its adventures are only a dream which it is dreaming.
The latent process in the macrocosm, that process which which the world was generated from the primal chaos up to its final future perfect state is commonly termed cosmology. Just as Bacon symbolized the latent process from the viewpoint of man as a whole in his introductory work of The Tempest, so also, symbolized the latent process from the viewpoint of the world as a whole. Bacon outlined his ideas concerning the principles of things and the origins of the world in his treatise ON PRINCIPLES AND ORIGINS ACCORDING TO THE FABLES OF CUPID AND COELUM, and in THE FABLE OF COELUM: OR THE ORIGIN OF THINGS and, in his book THE WISDOM OF THE ANCIENTS. In the latter treatise he explained that there existed two divisions of time:
The reign of Saturn, he said, had to do with matter, for, "By Saturn is meant matter itself;" and was the division of time during which: "the agitations and motions of matter produced at first imperfect and ill-compacted structures of things, that would not hold together,-mere attempts at worlds."
This was the reign of discord. The reign of Jupiter, he said, was the division of time wherein concord stepped in and set up its rule: "There followed notable commotions in the heavenly regions; which however, by the power of the Sun predominating in those regions, were so composed that the world survived and kept its state; afterwards in like manner followed convulsions in the lower regions, by inundations, tempests, winds, earthquakes of more universal character than any we now have; and then these likewise were subdued and dispersed, things settled at last into a more durable state of consent and harmonious operation."
Bacon went on to say:
"While that former system of generation lasted which had place under the reign of Saturn, Venus, according to the story, was not yet born. For so long as in the universal frame of matter discord was stronger than concord and prevailed over it, there could be no change except of the whole together; and in this manner did the generation of things proceed before Saturn was castrated. But as soon as this mode of generation ceased, it was immediately succeeded by that other which proceeds part by part only, the total fabric remaining entire and undisturbed. Nevertheless Saturn is represented as thrust out and overthrown only, not as cut off and extinguished; because it was the opinion of Democritus that the world might yet relapse into its ancient confusion and intervals of no government:"
Although Bacon said only that this was the system of the poets, and was later espoused by Democritus, and did not refer specifically to Empedocles, it would appear that this idea found its most complete embodiment in the ancient poem on nature by Empedocles (c.490-430 B.C.). The title of this poem was PHYSIS, and I found that it made Bacon's ideas much clearer. Of the original work PHYSIS only a few fragments amounting to about 400 lines remained. In his book EMPEDOCLES' COSMIC CYCLE A Reconstruction From The Fragments and Secondary Sources (Cambridge at the University Press 1969), however, D. O'Brien had attempted to make a reconstruction of the PHYSIS. Briefly stated the system was as follows:
Two equal divisions of time existed in the universal order of things, the division of Strife, and the division of Love. Strife led to multi- plicity, Love to Unity. In the cycle from Strife to the maximum influence of love there was generated first separate lumps of watery earth; then monsters, then men and women, then men and women united, then oneness. Another feature of the system was the tempest of the elements to which Bacon had referred. According to Lucretius:
"deinde inimica modis multis sunt atque ueneno ipsa sibi inter se; quare aut congressa peribunt aut ita diffugient ut tempestate coacta fulmina diffugere atque imbris imbris uentosque uidemos." "sed noua tempestas queadam molesque coorta," In the Tempest the first division of time, the reign of Saturn or matter was allegorized by the 12 years during which Sycorax and then Caliban had ruled the island. They were both black,- the color which traditionally has always represented matter.
Sycorax was cast out of Algiers, the capital of Algeria, the country adjoining Tunesia of which the capital was Tunis. Just prior to the beginning of the play Clarabell had been wed to the king of Tunis. The import of the allegory was that following the ejection of chaotic matter(Sycorax) from the union or adjoing kingdom, the King of Tunis was united to clear, bright beauty(Clarabell=clear,bright,beauty) signifying that the formative force of love imposed its order upon matter.
The next stage brought the tempest and those notable convulsions when things were to settle into "a more durable state of consent and harmonious operation." This came near the end of the 12 year reign of Jupiter or Prospero(some commentators have connected Prospero with Jupiter). Ariel sings:
Come vnto these yellow sands, and then take hands: Curtsied when you haue, and kist the wild waues whist: Foote it featly heere, and there, and sweete Sprights beare the burthen.
And in issuing an invitation to the dance is expressing the symbolic implications of the dance which was presented by Sir John Davies, and signified the imposition of order upon the hitherto chaotic substance of the universe:
The Fire, Ayre, Earth, and water did agree By Loues perswasion, Nature's mighty King, To leave their first disordred combating; And in a daunce such measure to obserue, As all the world their motion should preserue.
Now the last stages in the cosmology are coming about whereby love draws all things together and produces unity. The members of the kings party dispersed about the island begin to move inward toward Prospero's cell. Next Ferdinand and Miranda come together. The man and woman are united. Finally, as the play nears it end, all the characters are brought together in Prospero's cell. An inferred sequel remains. According to Bacon Saturn was "represented as thrust out and overthrown only, not as cut off and extinguished; because it was the opinion of Democritus that the world might yet relapse into its ancient confusion and intervals of no government:" Caliban who had been thrust out and overthrown was now(presumbably) to regan his rule of the isle following the leaving of Prospero on the following day. Thus the allegory had been followed of the latent process in the great world up to its perfect state, yet the wheel did not cease to turn.
MAN CONGREGATE-CIVIL PRUDENCE ART OF CONVERSATION (Prudence in Conversation)
Bacon said the use of conversation was comfort against solitude. But solitude was not restricted to mere solitariness or absence of company. It had a wider meaning and applied to that solitude of spirt which men experience in grief and sorrow and which leads them to brood in silence over their own feelings.
This type of prudence in conversation was well illustrated by the attempts of Gonzalo to comfort Alonzo in the supposed loss of his son. Gonzalo, later pointedly referred to by Antonio as Sir Prudence, utilized several devices to entertain Alonzo and keep his mind from his despair. He suggested that the island was a type of paradise. He put forth an entertaining dialogue on the type and manner of utopic kingdom he would have on the island if he were king on it. Then he suggested to Alonzo that source of comfort which to the mass of men is, perhaps, more consolatory than any other, that is, that others are equally afflicted with themselves and from similar causes; and this, too, conincided with a remark of Bacon in a letter to Bishop Andrewes:
"Amongst consolations, it is not the least to represent to a man's self like examples of calamity in others." And thus Gonzalo said to the King: " Our hint of woe is common: every day some sailor's wife, The masters of some merchant and the merchant have just our theme of woe." He points out also-what is always a source of gratification-the advantage they have over others : " But for the miracle, I mean our preservation, few in millions Can speak like us: then wisely, good sir, weigh Our sorrow with our comfort." So that throughout the conversation illustrates the spirit of the meaning Bacon assigned to conversation.
Among the many axioms which Bacons lays down in prudence in business he dwells particularly upon the necessity of keeping order and priority both in matter and time. In the Advancement, speaking on this subject of prudential wisdom and the use of occasion, he says: "As there is an order and priority in matter, so is there in time, the preposterious placing whereof is one of the commonest errors, while men fly to their ends when they should intend their beginnings, and do not take things in order of time as they should come on, but marshal them according to greatness, and not according to instance; not observing the good precept, Quod nunc instat agamus," A precept which obviously enjoins the fit use of time, and which, both in its observance and violation, is so fully presented in The Tempest. In all these respects Prospero's method of attending to business follows Bacons precepts exactly. He promptly seizes the occasion which offers for the restoration of his fortunes. In all his plans he is governed by a wise foresight. He comprehends his project as a whole and in all its parts, appoints every particular to time and place, exacts the strictest punctuality in the performance of every command, carefully supervises each step in the progress of his scheme. Orderly and vigilant, he hurries nothing, omits nothing, but advances deliberately, gradually, and surely to the accomplishment of his purpose.
In a 1951 essay Lawrence Bowling points to the Tempest as "one of Shakespeare's most significant commentaries upon the conduct of real human beings and practical government in a modern civilized state." In 1973 William Godshalk, taking his cue from Bowling, demonstrated that The Tempest was "patterned around ideas of governing, of the master servant situation in its multiple aspects."
The very first scene in the play paints a lively emblem of government. A ship is in a perilous state. Without proper management it will be wrecked. The device of the Ship of State was a common emblem in the Renaissance. Linked to this device of the tempest beset Ship of State is the tacit comment on civil government-the price of efficient, safe government is constant vigilance; to be lax is to court ruin. This theme is also pointed to by the Boatswain's response to Gonzalo:
"What cares these roarers for the name of King?"
The second scene shows how Prospero lost his rule in the past through neglecting the demands of his governmental authority. He has had twelve years on the island to assimilate his mistake. He has learned to govern Caliban, the lower physical type, as well as Ariel, the higher, imaginative type. His exile has constituted his schooling. The play opens upon a wiser Prospero who is able to exerise power. At the least show of dissent on Ariel's part, Prospero reacts with a harshness which may appear unbecoming, but which actually demonstrates that the exiled ruler, his lesson learned the hard way, is now in firm control of his servants. He severity is necessary. He tells Ariel:
"If thou more murmur'st, I will rend an oak, And peg thee in his knotty entrails, till Thou hast howl'd away twelve winters." Certainly this is no longer the ruler who allows his ministers to govern in his tead. His treatment of Caliban makes the same point: "If thou neglect'st or dost unwillingly
What I command, I'ld rack thee with old cramps, Fill all thy bones with aches, make thee roar, That beasts shall tremble at thy din."
The play shows Prospero as very strict and exact in carrying out his duties as ruler of the island. Those who land on the island have to deal with a ruler in complete control of his government. No longer can Antonio work his evil machinations unseen by one "transported and rapt in secret studies." Prospero is now always vigilant and on the alert. Nothing is hidden from him. He sees and knows everything that happens on the island, and his response is quick and stern.
Prospero is more now than just an alert ruler. He had gained special powers from his "secret studies". He utilizes these hidden and secret powers as special aids in his governing. The distinction is made between the good rule of Prospero and the evil rule of Sycorax. Though Ariel may desire his ultimate freedom and repines at Prospero's commands he executes them whereas he could not, or would not, execute the commands of Sycorax.
The idealistic government of Gonzalo is constrasted with the practical rule of Prospero. In Gonzalo's kingdom there would be no rulers over the people, no trade, no letters. Land would be held in common; there would be no money, no economy, and thus there would be neither wealth or poverty. This is a dream of a trusting and benevolent nature and is out of place in the real world. Shortly after his utopic dream is expressed Gonzalo wuld have been murdered by Antonio except for the intervention of Prospero. Prospero does not rely on an innate goodness of all men, but on the prerogatives of rule, on enforced obedience, and the "use of service." Prospero's govern- ment recognizes man's basic recalcitrance to command and rule. Another model of "wrong" government is the short and unhappy reign of King Stephano who actually tried to set up a kingdom on the island. If Prospero has Ariel to command, Stephano has his "servant-monster" Caliban. The contrast stresses the difference in their governments. Here is demonstrated how quickly the mob, the commoners, or lowest type of people will switch their allegiance from a strict but just ruler to the rule of a tyrant; thinking that by doing so they have gained freedom whereas they have actually increased their bondage. Concerning government Bacon said:
"It is a part of knowledge secret and retired, in both these respects in which things are deemed secret; for some things are secret because they are hard to know, and some because they are not fit to utter. We see all governments are obscure and invisible.
Totamque infusa perartus Mens agitat molen, et magno se corpore miscet. (In every pore diffused the great mind works, Stirs all the mass, and thro' the huge frame lives.)
Such is the description of governments. We see the government of God over the world is hidden, insomuch as it seemeth to participate of much irregularity and confusion. The government of the Soul in moving the Body is inward and profound, and the passages thereof hardly to be reduced to demonstration. Again, the wisdom of antiquity (the shadows whereof are in the poets) in the description of torments and pains, next unto the crime of rebellion which was the Giants' offence, doth detest the offence of futility, as in Sisphyus and Tantalus. But this was meant of particulars:
Nevertheless even unto the general rules and discourses of policy and government there is due a reverent and reserved handling."
and, at another time he said:
"Also the sheep-hook is a noble metaphor, alluding to the mixture of straight and crooked in the ways of natures. But the staff is curved chiefly towards the top; because all the works of Divine Providence in the world are wrought by winding and roundabout ways-where one thing seems to be doing, and another is doing really-as in the selling of Joseph into Egypt, and the like. So also in all the wiser kings of human government, they who sit at the helm can introduce and insinuate what they desire for the good of the people more successfully by pretexts and indirect ways than directly; so that every rod or staff of empire is truly crooked at the top."
This government described by Bacon matched exactly with the government by which Prospero administered affairs on the island during the three hours of the play. In hidden ways through his invisible agent, Ariel, Prospero brought about all that happened on the island; controlling the events like the government of God over the world, or of the soul over the body), both of which were represented in the allegory. For as though one aspect of the allegory Prospero represented God, through another he represented the rational soul (Ariel and his fellows fellows, the spirits in the body directed by the rational soul, bring about all of the movements of the body.) Indeed, in this government everything was revealed to Prospero, while, to the ones he governed, everything was concealed.
There you have it. The world's greatest Brain Teaser. I have returned to the problem from time to time, and thought about it on and off, for more years than I would care to name. The question is: What was the Formula of Interpretation that Bacon kept secret? Exactly how did his Discovery Device work?